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Panel I—Cross-Cultural Issues

Panel I consisted of four presentations that addressed the foundational and cross-cutting themes within the larger global framework for the role of women in science. Angelica Salvi Del Pero, administrator of the Gender/Social Policy Division under the Directorate for Employment, Labor and Social Affairs at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), presented international comparative data on women in science from both OECD member and nonmember countries. Mariko Ogawa, professor of history of science and science studies at Mie University in Japan, provided a global historical perspective on women’s participation in the chemical sciences, computer science, and mathematics and statistics.

She was followed by Anne MacLachlan, senior researcher at the Center for Studies in Higher Education at the University of California, Berkley, who presented her perspective on the cultural parameters affecting female participation in educational systems in the highlighted fields. Finally, Alice Abreu, the regional coordinator of the International Council for Science Rio+20 Initiative and professor emeritus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, provided an overview of the metrics and methods used in occupational sex segregation research to understand sex differences in the distribution of women and men in different positions in academia and the workforce.

2.1 Knowledge and Data Sources1

Angelica Salvi Del Pero
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Salvi Del Pero presented preliminary findings from a new OECD gender initiative, which examines gender equality in three areas: education, employment, and entrepreneurship (3Es). The data presented provided statistical comparisons for both OECD and non-OEDC economies in an attempt to identify gaps, patterns, and links among the 3Es; particular emphasis was placed on emerging economies.

Using data collected for the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), gaps between high-school boys’ and girls’ average scores on competency tests in reading, math, and science were determined. In terms of reading scores, Salvi Del Pero emphasized that on average, girls performed significantly better than boys across all countries. The largest overall gender gaps were observed in Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia, and, where gaps were as high as 10 points in favor of girls. The three smallest overall gender gaps were observed for Brazil, The Netherlands, and the United States, where gaps approached 5 points. Conversely, the boys’

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1See Appendix E-1 for the full paper.



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2 Panel I--Cross-Cultural Issues Panel I consisted of four presentations that addressed the foundational and cross-cutting themes within the larger global framework for the role of women in science. Angelica Salvi Del Pero, administrator of the Gender/Social Policy Division under the Directorate for Employment, Labor and Social Affairs at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), presented international comparative data on women in science from both OECD member and nonmember countries. Mariko Ogawa, professor of history of science and science studies at Mie University in Japan, provided a global historical perspective on women's participation in the chemical sciences, computer science, and mathematics and statistics. She was followed by Anne MacLachlan, senior researcher at the Center for Studies in Higher Education at the University of California, Berkley, who presented her perspective on the cultural parameters affecting female participation in educational systems in the highlighted fields. Finally, Alice Abreu, the regional coordinator of the International Council for Science Rio+20 Initiative and professor emeritus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, provided an overview of the metrics and methods used in occupational sex segregation research to understand sex differences in the distribution of women and men in different positions in academia and the workforce. 2.1 Knowledge and Data Sources1 Angelica Salvi Del Pero Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Salvi Del Pero presented preliminary findings from a new OECD gender initiative, which examines gender equality in three areas: education, employment, and entrepreneurship (3Es). The data presented provided statistical comparisons for both OECD and non-OEDC economies in an attempt to identify gaps, patterns, and links among the 3Es; particular emphasis was placed on emerging economies. Using data collected for the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), gaps between high-school boys' and girls' average scores on competency tests in reading, math, and science were determined. In terms of reading scores, Salvi Del Pero emphasized that on average, girls performed significantly better than boys across all countries. The largest overall gender gaps were observed in Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia, and, where gaps were as high as 10 points in favor of girls. The three smallest overall gender gaps were observed for Brazil, The Netherlands, and the United States, where gaps approached 5 points. Conversely, the boys' 1 See Appendix E-1 for the full paper. 3

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4 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE average score in mathematics surpassed those of girls' by a gap of five points or less. Only two countries, Indonesia and Sweden, exhibited results where girls outperformed the boys in mathematics. Performance sex gaps in science were generally negligible and inconsistent, having gaps of less than 2 points and no overall gender advantage. The sex gaps widen for degrees earned in tertiary education. A review of first tertiary degrees awarded in mathematics and computer science or engineering, manufacturing, and construction2 shows large sex gaps that do not correlate with PISA performance in mathematics and sciences. Males earned a greater portion of degrees awarded in mathematics and science. Salvi Del Pero stated that even the relatively small sex gap in mathematics performance does not adequately explain the lower participation of females in mathematics as a degree or career choice. Instead, motivation measures showed a greater correlation with sex gaps in degree attainment. Motivation was measured using an index that included student assessments of how interesting the subject was and how relevant the subject would be for their career choice. Preliminary findings suggested that girls were less motivated to select mathematics and engineering majors. On the basis of this evidence, Salvi Del Pero recommended three policy initiatives that engage girls earlier in mathematics and computer science to encourage greater participation in these fields. First, she recommended working toward a better gender balance of teaching staff in kindergarten and in basic education. Second, professional role models are a key to gender equality in all three areas, so "masculine" professions should intentionally be promoted among young women and "feminine" professions among young men. Third, preliminary findings suggested that stereotyping is still paramount in addressing motivation measures in science, mathematics, computer science, and engineering-related fields. Salvi Del Pero proposed that stereotyping be addressed in educational and training choices at school (and at home); policies to address stereotyping in education should not be conceived as isolated initiatives. A gender- difference initiative should be complemented by more general efforts to combat gender stereotyping in social messages and should not clash with the messages conveyed via the media and the observations of the actual patterns of employment. Finally, Salvi Del Pero presented data based on Over 55 percent of males who a survey of college graduates employed at their first job majored in science acquired jobs at least 5 years after tertiary graduation, as shown in in physics, mathematics, and Table 2-1. The data suggested that different pathways engineering after graduation. In in employment emerged for women and men. Over 55 contrast, only 34 percent of female percent of males who majored in science acquired jobs majors in these same areas in physics, mathematics, or engineering after obtained positions in related fields. graduation. In contrast, only 34 percent of female majors in these same areas obtained positions in related --Angelica Salvi Del Pero fields. Correlation of these results to other fields was not possible. For example, 68 percent of females who majored in humanities secured teaching positions after graduation; only 52 percent of similarly trained males secured similar positions. Further analysis is necessary to explain these different outcomes for men and women, including understanding "What are the influences of expected outcomes on the labor market." In the near- term, Salvi Del Pero and her associates will address this question using additional surveys of college graduates and longitudinal PISA data. Additionally, every three years since 2000, OECD 2 The OECD aggregates "mathematics and computer science" and "engineering, manufacturing, and construction." In some cases, these fields are disaggregated.

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CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES 5 has followed up with PISA respondents. Survey respondents who recently attended college are now entering the labor market, and the project team will seek to identify emerging causal patterns along the pathway to scientific careers. TABLE 2-1. Occupation and Field of Study Correlation Table for PISA-Tested Students by Gender for Six Countries (in percentages)3 Physics, Mathematics, Life Sciences Occupation and Engineering and Health Teaching Other Total Field of study, males Humanities 7.94 0.89 52.36 38.80 100.00 Social sciences 13.40 1.14 7.71 77.75 100.00 Science 55.32 18.40 13.80 12.49 100.00 Health 8.35 76.56 3.12 11.97 100.00 Total 23.03 15.44 16.79 44.74 100.00 Field of study, females Humanities 1.98 1.70 68.43 27.89 100.00 Social Sciences 5.45 2.43 11.42 80.70 100.00 Science 33.65 28.91 22.12 15.32 100.00 Health 5.61 69.89 5.15 19.35 100.00 Total 7.54 21.06 29.92 41.48 100.00 SOURCE: "OECD Gender Initiative: Strengthening Gender Equality in Economic Opportunities." Presentation made by Angelica Salvi Del Pero at the Blueprint for the Future: Framing the Issues of Women in Science in a Global Context Workshop. 2.2 Socio-Historical Trends4 Mariko Ogawa Mie University in Japan Ogawa presented a historical sketch of women's participation in chemistry, computer science, and mathematics before 1960, developed with collaborators Lisa M. Frehill and Sophia Huyer. Ogawa's presentation covered noteworthy graduate degree recipients, women's engagement in professional societies or guilds, female Noble laureates, and women's impact on significant research findings for each of the fields of interest. The team's findings refute arguments that historically suggested women were not capable of, or lacked interest in, scientific fields. 3 The six countries are Australia, Canada, Denmark, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Uruguay. 4 See Appendix E-2 for the full paper.

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6 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE Although the number of female students in chemistry has been increasing in recent years, historically female chemists were relatively scarce. One explanation focuses on the importance of laboratory work in the chemical sciences, which necessitates access to resources and poses demands on maintaining a balance in private life. There were some notable exceptions, such as Marie Curie who earned two Noble Prizes. Her first Noble Prize was awarded jointly with her husband in physics in 1903, and the second was in chemistry in 1911 to her alone. Other exemplary women in the chemical sciences worked with William Black and his son in the area of crystallography in England. Kathleen Lonsdale, Dorothy Hodgkin, and Rosalind Franklin were among them. Each of these chemists greatly contributed to the field: Kathleen Lonsdale was elected as the first female member of the Royal Society in 1945; Dorothy Hodgkin was award the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1964; and Rosalind Franklin became known for her crucial contribution to the identification of the double-helical structure of DNA. Ogawa suggested that these exceptional cases demonstrated that environment and encouragement were important to women's participation in the chemical sciences. Similar to chemistry, Ogawa offered analogous historical misconceptions of women in mathematics. Utilizing the images of the two dolls (Figure 2-1)--Barbie, from the United States, and Licca, from Japan--Ogawa highlighted the cultural issues associated with girls' formations of career possibilities by asking, "What is a common characteristic of popular dolls?" What is a common characteristic of popular dolls? Barbie: Her words in 1992: Math class is tough! Licca is good at art and music, but poor at math. FIGURE 2-1. "Math Myth"-- A Common Characteristic of Popular Dolls NOTE: Figure created by Mariko Ogawa for the presentation "Historical Sketch of Women in STEM Disciplines and Careers with a Focus on Three Disciplines: Chemistry, Mathematics, and Computer Science" delivered at the Blueprint for the Future: Framing the Issues of Women in Science in a Global Context Workshop. SOURCE: iStock (Barbie doll) and Takara Tomy (Licca doll). Reprinted with permission of Takara Tomy. The suggestion is that both Barbie and Licca are poor at math and primarily interested in the arts. These dolls represent popular conveyors of the "math myth" that girls are not good at, or interested in, mathematics.

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CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES 7 Ogawa argued that in spite of the modern "math myth" there are many women who enjoy mathematics. Women's participation in mathematics is not as problematic as some other science and engineering fields. This finding may be the result of work and research in mathematics usually not being tied to a laboratory or similar types of locations and is often conducted alone. Ogawa reviewed the 18th and 19th century series of Ladies Diaries5 as an example of women's popular engagement in solving complex mathematical problems and offered Charlotte Scott, Grace Young, and Julia Robinson as additional famous female mathematicians. She stated that in Russia and Germany, there were excellent female mathematicians. The first woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics was Sofia Vasilyevna Kovaleskaia, a Russian mathematician who earned her doctorate in absentia from the University of Gttingen. Relative to chemistry and mathematics, women's participation in computer science is emergent because of the relative newness of the field for both sexes. However, a few notable female computer scientists do exist. Ogawa highlighted the accomplishments of four famous computer scientists: Countess Lovelace (1815-1852), first developer of conceptual programming for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine; Mary Keller, founder of the computer science department at Clarke College in Dubuque, Iowa; Thelma Estrin, president of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society in 1977; and Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, who developed the COBOL programming language. In conclusion, Ogawa presented a historical perspective of some of the challenges and issues associated with assessing women's participation within a global context. Much of the literature on the pre-1960 era came from Western Europe and North America; future research needs to find ways to engage multilingual literature for broader global coverage. Similarly, modern science is relatively new in many countries, and it is difficult to locate information regarding the status of women in science in a global context. Ogawa proposed that the colonial past and the national paths to independence have significant implications for women's participation in science. Last, the chemical industry is capital-intensive and mobile. As a result, new labor forces are developed as capital moves across international boundaries. Ogawa emphasized that future research needs to consider the interaction of gender in each of these new contexts to effectively understand the role of women in chemistry, mathematics, and computer science worldwide. 2.3 Higher Education6 Anne MacLachlan University of California, Berkley MacLachlan provided a historical perspective on the development of the research university and its impact on women's participation in the scientific fields under discussion. The research university (defined as a doctoral conferring institution) has a monopoly on awarding doctorates as well as on the facilities necessary for training students in scientific fields. According to MacLachlan, "the research university has become the embodiment of western science." She attributed the dominance of the research university to a number of factors, including the requirement of surplus wealth to develop higher education institutions globally, the 5 The Ladies Diaries contained complex mathematical problems and was a part of a contest in Europe. It was designed specifically for the amusement and entertainment of women with an appendix of curious and valuable mathematical papers for the use of students. 6 See Appendix E-3 for the full paper.

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8 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE necessity for a good primary and secondary education to feed these universities, and the adherence of national and international norms that govern teaching and practice of science and mathematics. Professional or disciplinary societies also influence the structure and content of higher education, because they maintain and develop the norms that govern a particular field. MacLachlan suggested that the traditional elitism of professional societies and research universities is a possible barrier to women's participation in chemistry, mathematics and statistics, and computer science. The origins of the research university can be traced to institutions created by the Catholic Church to train men for the priesthood, medicine, and law. These institutions existed separate from the larger society, and attendees were privileged above most sectors of society, excluding the monarchy. The implications of being an elite group still apply to the practice of science in the 21st century. Citing Tony Becher and Paul R. Trowler's Academic Tribes and Territories,7 she emphasized that teachers not only transmit knowledge, but also transmit a set of values associated with the culture of the research university. Becker's work suggests that each discipline has its own language, rites, and rituals. As was the case with the original universities of the Middle Ages discussed earlier, "interaction with others" is not valued; separatism is the greater aim. Thus, women's participation is not merely regulated by acceptance in an academic institution, but also by acceptance into an elite culture of academia. Although the contributions of women historically in scientific fields may have been documented, MacLachlan noted that the conferral of doctoral degrees to women is predominately a 21st century phenomenon. Women received science Ph.D.s in the 1920s, but their participation in science at the doctoral level was more circumscribed and did not begin to change until the 1970s. "The presence of a woman brings a whole new value set and a set of expectations to disciplines which never had to think about social interaction much at all," she said. And new values and expectations often clash with the historical values and expectations associated with each discipline. With this backdrop, MacLachlan outlined a series of parameters to use in examining the participation of women in higher education that would take into account the historical development of universities, professional societies, and disciplines in individual countries. Such parameters include: the number and type of higher education institutions; the percentage of women attending tertiary education by age cohort; the year(s) that women were admitted to degree programs and the establishment of chemistry, mathematics and statistics, and computer science as university subjects; the founding of relevant professional associations; the current numbers of women earning postsecondary degrees in these fields; trends in degree conferrals over last 30 years; and the professional employment of women in these fields. Using these parameters, detailed analysis of women's participation in chemistry, mathematics and statistics, and computer science can lead to new insights and comparisons across countries and regions. 7 Becker, T. and P.R. Trowler. 1989. Academic Tribes and Territories: Intellectual Inquiry and the Culture of Disciplines. Philadelphia: The Society of Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.

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CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES 9 2.4 Workforce Segregation8 Alice Abreu International Council for Science Rio+20 Initiative Abreu presented an overview of occupational sex segregation in computer science, chemistry, and mathematics and statistics from analysis conducted at three levels. The first (or macro) level describes differences in the labor market trends in the entire society. The second (or middle) level, examines how institutional processes of qualification, training, recruitment, and retention within scientific careers are affected by gender. The third and final level, the micro level of analysis, discusses the extent to which differences in occupational structures and careers reflect choices made by individuals and to what extent these choices are constrained by gender. Addressing the macro level first, Abreu noted that intentionality is a key issue at this stage. A large spectrum of analysis was reported that ranged from cases in which work segregation by sex was explicit and others in which sex segregation was less intentional and largely an unintended consequence of choices and social processes. To understand the effects of intention on sex segregation among various sectors, Abreu referred to contributions by her coauthor, Frehill. These contributions used analytical tools to examine both horizontal and vertical workforce sex segregation. Horizontal segregation was highlighted by looking at segregation of doctoral recipients by thesis and sex in U.S. mathematics departments as shown in Figure 2-2, which illustrates how segregation occurs across different fields of study. In contrast, the segregation within a system, or vertical segregation, was shown by examining the distribution of male and female mathematics faculty across ranks, as shown in Figure 2-3. Abreu emphasized that of all U.S. doctoral-degreed mathematics faculty, only 20 percent of all female faculty hold full-professorship positions compared with approximately 50 percent of all male faculty. Transitioning to the middle level of analysis, Abreu then discussed the processes that underlie the macro-level outcomes. At this level, she noted that elucidating these processes is important to understanding cross-cultural trending. For example, in some fields, women make up the majority of undergraduate students and, in some cases, the majority of doctorate students, but advancement of these women is not observed. Therefore, the process of recruitment and retention exists within realms that have been patterned by gender, but women consistently disappear at higher levels. Metaphorically, as Abreu commented, this pattern has been called the "leaky pipeline," "the crystal labyrinth," and "the glass ceiling." 8 See Appendix E-4 for the full paper.

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10 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE Statistics / biostatistics Algebra number theory Applied mathematics Geometry/ topology Differential, integral, and difference equations Discrete math/ combinatorial / logic / computer science Real, complex, functional, and harmonic analysis Numerical analysis / Approximations Probability Male Linear, non linear optimization / control Female Mathematics education Other/ unknown FIGURE 2-2. Horizontal Segregation: 2007-2008 Doctoral Recipients by Field of Thesis and Sex, U.S. Mathematics Departments SOURCE: Analysis of data in Phipps, P.J.W. Maxwell, and C.A. Rose, 2009. 2008 Annual Survey of the Mathematical Sciences in the United States. Notices Am. Math. Soc. 56 (7):828-843. 100% 90% Full 80% 70% Associate 60% 50% 40% Assistant 30% 20% 10% Instructor/lecturer 0% Male Female FIGURE 2-3. Vertical Segregation: U.S. Doctoral-degreed Mathematics Faculty by Sex and Rank, 2006 SOURCE: National Science Foundation (NSF). 2009. "Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States, 2006." Detailed Statistical Tables NSF09-317.

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CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES 11 Turning to emerging nations, Abreu used Brazil as an example of the presence of barriers to women's advancement in science and math that exist cross- nationally. Specifically, she explored several important stages In Turkey, women account in a scientific career: qualification and training; length of for more than 28 percent of training from undergraduate to postdoctorate; recruitment; how engineering faculty but to re-attract girls to science and math and retain them; and account for only 9 percent in how to retain and advance women in these careers, for the United States. example, by entry to full professorship. Abreu stated that women represent over 25 percent of engineering Ph.D.s and 60 -Alice Abreu percent of biological sciences Ph.D.s in Brazil. It is interesting that these statistics show relatively high participation of women in science and math in Brazil compared with affluent countries. Yet, most emerging and affluent nations only employ a small percentage of full female professors in these fields. In Turkey, women account for more than 28 percent of engineering faculty but account for only 9 percent in the United States, a finding that makes one question whether these percentages reflect individual choices or social constraints that affect individual choices. Abreu emphasized that more work is needed in this area but is optimistic that the identification of these barriers can be understood and measured. Finally, Abreu highlighted the need for micro-level analysis, where theories of individual choice must be re-examined. The debate is tumultuous--specifically regarding why women's representation in some STEM9 fields is so low, and why individual choices regarding academic fields of study and careers continue to be made along gender lines. For example, if sex segregation in the workforce can be explained by the individual choices of women in relation to gender preference, then why is gender difference more pronounced in the United States and affluent countries than in transitional and developing countries? Abreu suggested turning to women's social status (such as married versus unmarried) as one factor to consider at the micro level in understanding the occupational outcomes at the macro level. 2.5 Panel Discussion Anneke Sengers, scientist emeritus from National Institute of Standards and Technology and chair of the Women for Science Working Group from the InterAmerican Network of Academies of Science (IANAS), began by referencing her most recent experience working with the IANAS in the western hemisphere.10 The 5-year old regional network includes 17 national science academies representing territories across North, Central, and South America. One of the important issues that IANAS wishes to address is the low-level position of women in the STEM workforce, especially in developing countries. Sengers noted that even at the national level, each national academy has had difficulty enhancing women's participation but still share the concern for women in science globally; each national academy is aware they have a problem and is receptive to change. IANAS has established a group to address the participation of women in science in 2010, and this working group has already generated results. 9 Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a commonly used acronym in the United States. 10 For more information, please see: http://www.ianas.org/index.php/programs/women-for-science. Accessed August 21, 2012.

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12 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE 2.6 Question and Answer Comments Discussion Following Salvi Del Pero Remarks Joanne Cohoon, associate professor in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at the University of Virginia, asked Salvi Del Pero whether the OECD report will include policy recommendations and proposed initiatives to address stereotyping that go beyond the examples provided in the presentation. Salvi Del Pero responded, "Yes, it will definitely be a part of the report." She went on to clarify that additional recommendations will not be in the interim report because the research team is in the process of completing a comprehensive review of global policies that have already been put in place. It is difficult to evaluate the impact of these current policies. As a result, the aim is to include recommendations and initiatives that will work and meet the objectives specified in the presentation. Catherine Didion commented that she found the huge differences in representation of women in mathematics and computer science in the OECD data to be very interesting. She observed that there was no geographic pattern associated with the differences Salvi Del Pero detailed. Didion asked Salvi Del Pero whether she thought the framework of introducing boys to more feminine careers and girls to more masculine careers will work in a global context, considering the many cultural variances regarding which jobs and expectations are commonly associated with each gender. Salvi Del Pero replied that they not only need to look at the field of employment but also more detailed occupational statistics. So far they have discovered that within certain fields of employment there is micro-segregation at the subfield level. She acknowledged that more complex analysis is needed, and OECD will have to think through how to map solutions into an international context. OECD is expecting to make the full report available by the end of fiscal year 2012. Robert Lichter, a principal at Merrimack Consultants, LLC, inquired how OECD will go about gaining information regarding program outcomes. Salvi Del Pero indicated that the approach will be to ask collaborating or OECD member countries to provide information regarding program outcomes. Cohoon followed up and asked whether OECD will look at trends over time in different countries. Salvi Del Pero replied in the affirmative. However, she explained that this task will be difficult using PISA data because the data have been collected only since 2000. Therefore, post graduation survey data may be the best option to conduct trending analysis. Salvi Del Pero acknowledged that conducting such surveys is challenging. Cohoon suggested that it is important to look at trends over time and at different levels. She presumes that OECD will discover shifts in female participation or female interest that occur simultaneously across levels to determine the extent to which the "pipeline" metaphor is accurate. A member of the audience found the motivation data intriguing and inquired whether the definition used in the analysis will be made available. She added that in developing countries recognition of mathematical aptitude is valued more highly than reading. In these cases, the definition of motivation would need to be broadened. Salvi Del Pero stated that the definition of motivation for this project is based on questions in the PISA survey, which includes a series of questions that ask students to gauge the

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CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES 13 importance of a subject to their future studies, career, or advancement. The PISA survey questions are available in any PISA report, but she would send them to Didion to share with the participants.11 Frehill reported that the U.S. Census Bureau recently added "field of study" as a question on the 2009 American Community Survey, which has opened the door to analyzing some of the issues raised in Salvi Del Pero's presentation. Previously in the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys that the Science and Engineering Statistical Analysis System conducted were the only way to examine the connection between college majors and careers. Now, this examination is possible for a wider population. Frehill also asked Salvi Del Pero to elaborate on the type of work being done in relation to gender differences within entrepreneurship. Salvi Del Pero stated that she did not address the entrepreneurial dimension in the presentation because of time constraints. She acknowledged that work in this area is still in its infancy. In fall 2010, the project team prepared a scope paper outlining the literature relevant to the project. They noticed that no cross-national comparison data were available concerning entrepreneurship. They decided to take advantage of another project initiated by the OECD entrepreneurial indicators program and added a gender dimension to it. They are in the process of collecting these data. Salvi Del Pero was unsure whether the findings would be available to include in their final report. Discussion Following Ogawa Remarks During the question and comment session of Ogawa's presentation, MacLachlan noted one other historical fact: the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in the United States did so around 1888, which was approximately 100 years behind Europe. Question and Answer Following MacLachlan Remarks Alice Popejoy from the Association of Women in Science (AWIS) mentioned that AWIS obtained a grant from NSF to explore disciplinary societies. She asked MacLachlan to elaborate on the point she made in the presentation about professional societies and disciplinary societies. MacLachlan clarified that professional and disciplinary societies had a rather substantial role regarding barriers to women's participation in chemistry, mathematics, and computer science. When these organizations were established in the United States, most members knew one another (the membership was small). As they grew, they often maintained this club-like characteristic. Therefore, as women became part of the field, they were not always received with enthusiasm. For example, women were not allowed into the University of California, Berkeley faculty association until 1964. Discussion Following Abreu Remarks Daryl Chubin, director of the Center for Advancing Science and Engineering Capacity at the American Association for the Advancement of Science commented that Abreu's presentation regarding horizontal segregation raised interesting measurement issues. He stated 11 To view the sample questions from OECD's PISA Assessments at: http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/pisa2000/41943106.pdf. Accessed August 21, 2012.

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14 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE that choice and environment are two sides of the same coin, and that researchers will not know enough about environmental constraints by interviewing individuals regarding their choices. Chubin speculated that once Abreu and colleagues establish horizontal segregation in a discipline, they will also discover that it influences the vertical trait. However, he questioned whether "discipline" is the right unit of analysis. Abreu noted that the literature in this area is extensive. A lot of case studies have been done, especially by anthropologists examining various factors that influence choice of career. She mentioned a highly regarded Brazilian fellowship for which women are underrepresented among recipients. The question of how the fellowship is awarded has been reviewed. She cited one study that revealed that to be considered for the first level of award review women needed to publish four times as much as men, although this was a one-year contextual study. Abreu acknowledged that it is a challenge to illuminate these complex and sometimes invisible social processes. Chubin followed up by stating that in the United States there is significantly more credibility given to choice than to environmental factors. Abreu affirmed that it is easier to conclude that gender differences are an outcome of individuals' choices. It is simpler to regulate solutions to choice because such conclusions do not require any structural change. Unfortunately, she stated, this belief is untrue. For example, Brazil keeps a public database of recipients' applications. Therefore, anyone is able to compare candidates openly. Transparency is very important to this type of micro-level analysis. Judy Franz, executive officer emeritus from the American Physical Society and the past secretary general in the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, commented that she found it most interesting to compare Germany and France, which have similar levels of women's participation in physics, because cultural distinctions become more evident. She pointed out that questions regarding individual choice and cultural factors have been asked several times in the past. Abreu agreed that the data are there but suggested that discussion and combating resistance must continue. This is the reason she focuses on institutional processes. Rebecca Keiser, deputy director of Policy Integration at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acknowledged that the Workforce Sex Segregation and Higher Education presentations raised particular issues for her. She stated that part of NASA's challenge is the close relationship it has with certain universities. Recruitment is heavily directed toward specific university partners, especially in Florida and Houston. Consequently, the gender inequities at the university level get translated to NASA.