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has followed up with PISA respondents. Survey respondents who recently attended college are now entering the labor market, and the project team will seek to identify emerging causal patterns along the pathway to scientific careers.

TABLE 2-1. Occupation and Field of Study Correlation Table for PISA-Tested Students by Gender for Six Countries (in percentages)3

Occupation Physics,
Mathematics,
and Engineering
Life Sciences
and Health
Teaching Other Total
 
Field of study, males          

Humanities

7.94

0.89

52.36

38.80

100.00

Social sciences 13.40 1.14 7.71 77.75 100.00

Science

55.32

18.40

13.80

12.49

100.00

Health 8.35 76.56 3.12 11.97 100.00

Total

23.03

15.44

16.79

44.74

100.00

 

Field of study, females          

Humanities

1.98

1.70

68.43

27.89

100.00

Social Sciences 5.45 2.43 11.42 80.70 100.00

Science

33.65

28.91

22.12

15.32

100.00

Health 5.61 69.89 5.15 19.35 100.00

Total

7.54

21.06

29.92

41.48

100.00

SOURCE: “OECD Gender Initiative: Strengthening Gender Equality in Economic Opportunities.” Presentation made by Angelica Salvi Del Pero at the Blueprint for the Future: Framing the Issues of Women in Science in a Global Context Workshop.

2.2 Socio-Historical Trends4

Mariko Ogawa
Mie University in Japan

Ogawa presented a historical sketch of women’s participation in chemistry, computer science, and mathematics before 1960, developed with collaborators Lisa M. Frehill and Sophia Huyer. Ogawa’s presentation covered noteworthy graduate degree recipients, women’s engagement in professional societies or guilds, female Noble laureates, and women’s impact on significant research findings for each of the fields of interest. The team’s findings refute arguments that historically suggested women were not capable of, or lacked interest in, scientific fields.

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3 The six countries are Australia, Canada, Denmark, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Uruguay.

4 See Appendix E-2 for the full paper.



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