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APPENDIX D

Data on Women Researchers in Science (Workshop Handout)

TABLE D-1. Women Researchers, As a Percentage of Total Researchers (head count) 2001-2008

  2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Country                
Austria .. 20.7 .. 23.6 .. 25.3 26.4 ..
Belgium .. 27.7 28.1 28.8 29.6 30.7 31.1 ..
Czech Republic 28.8 29.5 28.3 28.5 28.8 28.5 28.3 28.5
Denmark 28.0 26.2 28.1 .. 29.7 .. 30.2 ..
Finland 29.1 29.9 29.8 29.0 30.2 31.6 31.5 30.7
France 27.5 27.8 27.8 27.8 28.0 27.4 .. ..
Germany .. .. 19.5 .. 21.4 .. 23.2 ..
Greece 35.3 .. 37.1 .. 36.4 .. .. ..
Hungary 33.0 33.7 35.1 34.5 34.2 33.5 33.5 33.0
Iceland 34.7 .. 39.4 .. 39.3 38.6 37.8 37.8
Ireland .. 30.2 30.2 30.0 30.3 31.2 32.0 (p) ..
Italy 28.1 28.7 29.3 29.9 32.4 33.3 33.2 ..
Japan 10.7 11.2 11.6 11.9 11.9 12.4 13.0 13.0
Korea 11.1 11.6 11.4 12.0 12.9 13.1 14.9 15.6
Luxembourg .. .. 17.4 (c) .. 18.2 .. 24.1 (c) ..
Mexico .. .. 31.6 (c) .. .. .. .. ..
Netherlands .. .. 17.2 .. 18.0 (c) .. 23.0 ..
New Zealand 39.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Norway 28.3 .. 29.4 .. 31.7 .. 33.3 33.9
Poland .. .. 39.3 38.9 39.3 39.5 39.9 39.5
Portugal 43.6 44.0 (c) 44.3 44.4 (c) 44.4 43.8 (c) 43.4 ..
Slovak Republic .. 39.6 40.6 41.2 41.5 41.8 42.3 42.3
Slovenia 35.36 35.09 32.20 32.52 34.79 35.28 34.88 35.08
Spain 35.4 35.2 36.3 36.1 36.7 36.7 37.0 ..
Sweden .. .. .. .. 35.8 .. 34.5 ..
Switzerland .. .. .. 26.7 .. .. .. 30.2
Turkey 35.2 35.6 35.9 36.4 36.1 36.3 36.7 ..
United Kingdom .. .. .. .. 35.7 (c) .. 36.6 (c) ..

NOTE: The notation (c) indicates that this is a national estimate or projection adjusted if necessary by the Secretariat to meet Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), norms and (p) indicates that this is provisional data.

SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators, Science, Technology and R&D Statistics, 2010.



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APPENDIX D Data on Women Researchers in Science (Workshop Handout) TABLE D-1. Women Researchers, As a Percentage of Total Researchers (head count) 2001-2008 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Country Austria .. 20.7 .. 23.6 .. 25.3 26.4 .. Belgium .. 27.7 28.1 28.8 29.6 30.7 31.1 .. Czech Republic 28.8 29.5 28.3 28.5 28.8 28.5 28.3 28.5 Denmark 28.0 26.2 28.1 .. 29.7 .. 30.2 .. Finland 29.1 29.9 29.8 29.0 30.2 31.6 31.5 30.7 France 27.5 27.8 27.8 27.8 28.0 27.4 .. .. Germany .. .. 19.5 .. 21.4 .. 23.2 .. Greece 35.3 .. 37.1 .. 36.4 .. .. .. Hungary 33.0 33.7 35.1 34.5 34.2 33.5 33.5 33.0 Iceland 34.7 .. 39.4 .. 39.3 38.6 37.8 37.8 Ireland .. 30.2 30.2 30.0 30.3 31.2 32.0 (p) .. Italy 28.1 28.7 29.3 29.9 32.4 33.3 33.2 .. Japan 10.7 11.2 11.6 11.9 11.9 12.4 13.0 13.0 Korea 11.1 11.6 11.4 12.0 12.9 13.1 14.9 15.6 Luxembourg .. .. 17.4 (c) .. 18.2 .. 24.1 (c) .. Mexico .. .. 31.6 (c) .. .. .. .. .. Netherlands .. .. 17.2 .. 18.0 (c) .. 23.0 .. New Zealand 39.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Norway 28.3 .. 29.4 .. 31.7 .. 33.3 33.9 Poland .. .. 39.3 38.9 39.3 39.5 39.9 39.5 Portugal 43.6 44.0 (c) 44.3 44.4 (c) 44.4 43.8 (c) 43.4 .. Slovak Republic .. 39.6 40.6 41.2 41.5 41.8 42.3 42.3 Slovenia 35.36 35.09 32.20 32.52 34.79 35.28 34.88 35.08 Spain 35.4 35.2 36.3 36.1 36.7 36.7 37.0 .. Sweden .. .. .. .. 35.8 .. 34.5 .. Switzerland .. .. .. 26.7 .. .. .. 30.2 Turkey 35.2 35.6 35.9 36.4 36.1 36.3 36.7 .. United Kingdom .. .. .. .. 35.7 (c) .. 36.6 (c) .. NOTE: The notation (c) indicates that this is a national estimate or projection adjusted if necessary by the Secretariat to meet Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), norms and (p) indicates that this is provisional data. SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators, Science, Technology and R&D Statistics, 2010. 59

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60 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE TABLE D-2. Women Researchers by Sector of Employment, As a Percentage of Total Researchers, 2008 Country Business Government Higher Education Private non-Profit Enterprises Argentina 2.55 13.62 33.38 0.90 Portugal 4.33 8.39 26.54 5.11 Romania 10.85 9.70 22.54 0.18 Russian Federation 22.87 16.19 3.04 0.06 Slovak Republic 4.03 6.71 30.99 0.01 South Africa 5.60 2.67 31.17 0.28 Iceland 12.14 11.67 14.21 1.25 New Zealand 1.89 1.97 27.54 7.87 Poland 3.09 5.81 30.30 0.05 Spain 6.47 7.26 22.86 0.11 Greece 5.33 3.56 27.27 0.21 Turkey 3.67 1.78 30.82 0.00 Sweden 12.97 2.15 20.46 0.16 Slovenia 8.28 10.45 16.56 0.07 Hungary 5.12 7.22 21.13 0.00 Italy 5.09 5.97 19.37 1.92 Norway 7.89 4.59 19.25 0.00 Mexico 5.99 4.83 19.02 1.72 Finland 9.10 4.59 17.32 0.54 Ireland 8.38 1.10 20.76 0.06 Denmark 13.92 2.60 12.86 0.32 Belgium 8.75 1.62 19.36 -0.16 Czech Republic 5.20 8.20 14.99 0.08 France 9.03 3.60 14.51 0.70 Singapore 14.02 2.22 10.85 0.00 Switzerland 6.80 0.65 19.37 -0.08 Austria 5.87 1.90 15.50 0.35 Germany 5.27 3.11 12.99 0.00 Chinese Taipei 8.02 2.79 9.47 0.18 Luxembourg 10.60 5.40 2.21 0.00 Netherlands 5.90 4.61 7.20 0.31 Korea 7.01 0.77 5.08 0.27 Japan 4.11 0.55 7.61 0.14 SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, April 2008.

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APPENDIX D: DATA ON WOMEN RESEARCHERS IN SCIENCE 61 TABLE D-3. Employed Female Scientists and Engineers in the United States, by Occupations, Highest Degree Level, As a Percentage of Total Scientists and Engineers, 2006 All Degrees Bachelor's Master's Doctorate Occupation Both sexes Female Both sexes Female Both sexes Female Both Female (percent) (percent) (percent) sexes (percent) All occupations 18,927,000 44 10,886,000 45 5,384,000 47 883,000 30 S&E occupations 5,024,000 26 2,911,000 24 1,497,000 29 566,000 28 Scientist 3,403,000 33 1,865,000 31 1,023,000 37 467,000 33 Biological/life scientist 487,000 44 203,000 51 113,000 47 154,000 34 Agricultural/food scientist 57,000 32 32,000 38 15,000 27 10,000 20 Biological/medical scientist 336,000 49 137,000 59 76,000 55 107,000 36 Forestry and conservation scientist 35,000 14 22,000 14 11,000 9 2,000 N/A Postsecondary teacher 60,000 40 13,000 54 11,000 55 34,000 29 Computer and Information Scientist 1,963,000 26 1,350,000 25 557,000 26 50,000 16 Computer/informatio n scientist 1,938,000 25 1,345,000 25 546,000 27 41,000 15 Postsecondary teacher 25,000 32 5,000 20 11,000 45 9,000 22 Mathematical Scientist 149,000 39 44,000 41 70,000 43 33,000 27 Mathematical scientist 85,000 38 32,000 41 39,000 41 12,000 25 Postsecondary teacher 64,000 39 12,000 42 31,000 48 21,000 24 Physical Scientist 334,000 28 159,000 33 84,000 32 89,000 17 Chemist, except biochemist 134,000 35 79,000 39 26,000 42 28,000 18 Earth scientist / geologist / oceanographer 80,000 20 39,000 21 30,000 20 11,000 18 Physicist/astronomer 29,000 14 6,000 17 7,000 14 16,000 13 Other physical scientist 39,000 31 25,000 32 10,000 30 3,000 33 Postsecondary teacher 52,000 29 9,000 44 11,000 45 31,000 19 Psychologist 211,000 65 22,000 73 98,000 69 76,000 55 Social scientist 259,000 46 86,000 51 102,000 44 66,000 39 SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System.

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62 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE Science Physical sciences (ISC 44) Mathematics and statistics (ISC 46) Life sciences (ISC 42) Computing (ISC 48) 90% 80% 70% Female Percentage 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Country FIGURE D-1. Percentage of Women Graduates1 by Field of Study, 2005 SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Education Database, 2011. Figure created by Wei Jing. 1 Graduates from tertiary type A and advanced research programs.

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APPENDIX D: DATA ON WOMEN RESEARCHERS IN SCIENCE 63 Hungary Iceland Netherlands Switzerland Percent Women Among First Tertiary Denmark Australia Degrees in Mathematics, 2008 Sweden Austria Norway France Belgium United Kingdom Israel Luxembourg Mexico United States Canada Slovenia Turkey Non-OECD, Brazil Spain Greece New Zealand Czech Republic Finland Slovak Republic Italy Korea Germany Portugal Poland Chile Estonia 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% FIGURE D-2. Percentage of Women Among First Tertiary Degrees in Mathematics, 2008 SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, StatExtracts, 2011. Figure created by Lisa M. Frehill.

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64 BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE Percent Women Among First-Tertiary Degrees in Computer Science, 2008 FIGURE D-3. Women's Representation in Computing Varies Across Countries SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development StatExtracts, 2011. Figure created by Lisa M. Frehill and J. McGrath Cohoon.

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APPENDIX D: DATA ON WOMEN RESEARCHERS IN SCIENCE 65 # S tudents Slovenia 3605 Switzerland 4511 Belgium 5054 Netherlands 7998 Iceland 3507 Chile 4168 Slovak Republic 4829 Czech Republic 5584 Norway 4679 Germany 18208 France 16770 Italy 7290 Austria 3449 5470 Portugal 7270 Poland 19757 Canada 8474 Brazil 18226 United Kingdom 23408 Spain 10823 United States 51043 Australia 16762 Hungary 5895 Korea 12406 New Zealand 4846 Denmark 4407 Turkey 5646 Israel 4403 Estonia 3780 Sweden 4480 Finland 4693 Mexico 20912 Greece 4123 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S tandard Deviation FIGURE D-4. Women's Share of Tertiary Computing Degrees as Deviation Below Mean Discipline, 2006-2007 SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, StatExtracts, 2011. Calculations and figure created by J. McGrath Cohoon, Sergey Nigai, and Rachna Maheshwari.

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