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representation. Then we can measure the difference between women’s representation in computing compared with their representation in the average discipline. Figure E-6-2 shows for the same countries as in Figure E-6-1, the extent to which women’s representation in computing deviated below their representation in the country’s mean discipline. The longer the bar, the more computer science in that country stands out as having unusually poor representation of women.

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FIGURE E-6-2. Women’s Representation Relative to Non-Computing Disciplines

SOURCE: OECD Education Database.

As evident in Figure E-6-2, computing was gender imbalanced to women’s disadvantage in every one of these OECD countries. In most countries, women’s share of tertiary computing degrees was exceptionally low. Only in Turkey was that imbalance less than one standard deviation below the mean, because 24 percent female was not so different from women’s share of the average discipline in that country. Iceland, in contrast, exhibited particularly poor female representation in computing—9 percent—compared with the typically high level of Icelandic women in other disciplines. In Estonia, where women at first seem relatively well represented in computing (more than 25 percent, as shown in Figure E-6-1), the contextual information about



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