1

Introduction

There is a distinguished history of discoveries, achievements, and societal impact for nuclear and radiochemistry (defined in Box 1-1). After the discovery of radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Marie and Pierre Curie, who jointly received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 (Nobelprize.org 2012a), and of radium and polonium by Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 (Nobelprize.org 2012b), interest in nuclear and radiochemistry and the potential uses of radioactive materials grew significantly (see Figure 1-1).

In 1937 Glenn Seaborg received his Ph.D. in nuclear chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, and in 1939 E.O. Lawrence, also at UC Berkeley, won the Nobel Prize in physics for inventing the cyclotron (Nobelprize.org 2012c). A significant development in medicine was the use of radioisotopes as tracers to study chemical processes by George de Hevesy, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1943 (Nobelprize.org. 2012d). In 1951 Seaborg jointly earned the Nobel Prize in chemistry with Edwin McMillan for discovery of the transuranium elements and elucidation of their chemistry (Nobelprize.org 2012e). By the 1950s, radioactivity and radioactive elements were being applied in many fields such as medicine, energy, defense, and environmental monitoring.

The Atomic Energy Act signed into law in 1954 established the national laboratories, many on university campuses across the United States. As a result, the field of nuclear and radiochemistry developed from the study of the fundamental physical and chemical properties of radioactivity, which had mainly been applied in national defense, to applications in a range of areas, including cancer treatment, electricity production, and study of the impacts of large-scale events such as the use of nuclear weapons at the end of World War II.

The field of nuclear and radiochemistry has changed significantly since the mid-1960s, due to both positive and negative circumstances. U.S. de-



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1 Introduction There is a distinguished history of discoveries, achievements, and soci- etal impact for nuclear and radiochemistry (defined in Box 1-1). After the discovery of radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Marie and Pierre Curie, who jointly received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 (Nobelprize. org 2012a), and of radium and polonium by Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 (Nobelprize.org 2012b), interest in nuclear and radiochemistry and the potential uses of radioactive materials grew significantly (see Figure 1-1). In 1937 Glenn Seaborg received his Ph.D. in nuclear chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, and in 1939 E.O. Lawrence, also at UC Berkeley, won the Nobel Prize in physics for inventing the cyclotron (Nobelprize.org 2012c). A significant development in medicine was the use of radioisotopes as tracers to study chemical processes by George de Hevesy, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1943 (Nobelprize.org. 2012d). In 1951 Seaborg jointly earned the Nobel Prize in chemistry with Edwin McMillan for discovery of the transuranium elements and elucidation of their chemistry (Nobelprize.org 2012e). By the 1950s, radioactivity and radioactive elements were being applied in many fields such as medicine, energy, defense, and environmental monitoring. The Atomic Energy Act signed into law in 1954 established the national laboratories, many on university campuses across the United States. As a result, the field of nuclear and radiochemistry developed from the study of the fundamental physical and chemical properties of radioactivity, which had mainly been applied in national defense, to applications in a range of areas, including cancer treatment, electricity production, and study of the impacts of large-scale events such as the use of nuclear weapons at the end of World War II. The field of nuclear and radiochemistry has changed significantly since the mid-1960s, due to both positive and negative circumstances. U.S. de- 3

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4 ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY EXPERTISE BOX 1-1 THE DISCIPLINE: NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY For this report, the committee drew on two seminal textbooks for definitions of the disci- pline. The first, Nuclear Chemistry: Theory and Applications (Choppin and Rydberg 1980, page vii), defines nuclear chemistry as follows: There is no universally accepted definition for the term “nuclear chemistry.” For purposes of our text we regard nuclear chemistry in its broadest context as an interdisciplinary subject with roots in phys- ics, biology, and chemistry. The basic aspects include among others (i) nuclear reactions and energy levels, (ii) the types and energetics of radioactive decay, (iii) the formation and properties of radioac- tive elements, (iv) the effect of individual isotopes on chemical and physical properties, and (v) the effects of nuclear radiation on matter. Research in (i) and (ii) is often indistinguishable in purpose and practice from that in nuclear physics, although for nuclear chemists chemical techniques may play a significant role. (iii) and (iv) can be classified as radiochemistry and isotope chemistry, while (v) falls in the classification of radiation chemistry. Applied aspects of nuclear chemistry involve production of radioactive isotopes, radiation pro- cessing, radiation conservation of foods, etc., as well as all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle such as uranium recovery, isotope separation, reactions in the fuel elements, processing of spent fuel elements, waste handling, and effects of radiation on reactor materials. Radiation health aspects and techniques for remote control are other important fields. Knowledge in nuclear chemistry is an essential tool for research, development, and control in many areas of chemistry and technology (tracer methods, activation analysis, control gauges in indus- try, etc.), medicine (radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, radioimmuno assay, etc.), geology, and archeology (radioactive dating). The second book, Nuclear and Radiochemistry (Friedlander et al. 1981, p. v), takes a similarly broad view of the discipline: In adopting the present title of the book in 1955 we gave explicit recognition to a dichotomy in the field and in the audience addressed; a dichotomy that has probably become even more pronounced since then. The book is written as an introductory text for two broad groups: nuclear chemists, that is, scientists with chemical background and chemical orientation whose prime interest is the study of nuclear properties and nuclear reactions; and radiochemists, that is, chemists concerned with the fense modifications after World War II led to the curtailment of plutonium production beginning in 1964 and by 1972 eight of nine production reac- tors had been shut down, leaving significant cleanup issues (DOE 2011a). In addition, concerns about nuclear safety and security due to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and reactor accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986, as well as the attraction of new areas such as materials and nanoscience, have resulted in declining interest in nuclear and radiochemistry.

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5 INTRODUCTION chemical manipulation of radioactive sources and with the application of radioactivity and other nuclear phenomena to chemical problems (whether in basic chemistry or in biology, medicine, earth and space sciences, etc.). Despite the apparently growing division between these two audiences, indi- viduals have always moved fairly freely from one field to the other, and we continue to feel that nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry interact strongly with each other and indeed are so interdependent that their discussion together is almost necessary in an introductory text. The Workforce: Nuclear and Radiochemists As a research area or academic discipline, nuclear and radiochemistry is considered a subarea of chemistry. Nuclear and radiochemists are chemists who hold one or more degrees in chem- istry and have taken additional specialized courses and conducted laboratory work in nuclear and radiochemistry. They typically work in an organization’s chemistry department or division. There is no listing for nuclear and radiochemists in the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.1 Nuclear and radiochemists are part of the broader occupation of “chemists” (SOC code 19-2031), as are nuclear physicists part of the occupation of “physicists” (SOC code 19-2012). However, there is a classification for nuclear engineers (SOC code 17-2161), who, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, “conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal” (BLS 2010). Other broad categories that may include nuclear and radiochemists (especially at the bachelor’s degree level) are nuclear technicians (SOC code 19-4051), nuclear medicine technologists (SOC code 29-2033), and nuclear power plant operators (SOC code 51-8011). For the purposes of this report, the committee defines individuals employed as nuclear and radiochemists as those who work on projects that apply the principles and theory of nuclear and radiochemistry in basic research and in applications including nuclear energy, medicine, weapons, and waste disposal. For more information, see the Bureau of Labor Statistics website: www.bls.gov/soc/ [accessed June 30, 2012]. 1 At the same time, there has been a generally positive interest in ap- plications of nuclear and radiochemistry. For example, another outcome of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 was the creation of the discipline of nuclear medicine in the use of radioisotopes to label molecules for research and development of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging (most nota- bly positron emission tomography) and therapy. As a result, the estimated number of radiological and nuclear medicine procedures performed in the United States to diagnose diseases such as cancer and heart disease grew

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6 1951 1991 2 010 Nuclear Experimental 22% U.S. electricity 20% U.S. electricity Energy breeder reactor from nuclear energy from nuclear energy generates electricity 1901 1943 1974 2006 Nuclear Henri Alexandre Danlos Nobel Prize in Chemistry Positron emission transaxial About 395 million radiological Medicine and Eugene Bloch placed to de Hevesy for the use tomographic (PETT) imaging and nuclear medicine radium in contact with of isotopes as tracers device introduced by Michael procedures performed in a tuberculous skin lesion Phelps and industry colleagues the United States 1896 1911 1939 1951 1988 2009 Discovery of Nobel Prize in Nobel Prize in Physics Nobel Prize in Chemistry NAS Report DNDO National radioactivity by Chemistry to Marie to Lawrence for to Edwin McMillan and Forensics Henri Becquerel Curie for discovery of inventing cyclotron Seaborg for chemistry of Expertise Development radium and polonium transuranium elements Program established 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1903 1937 1978 1984 2004 Education Nobel Prize in Physics Glenn Seaborg receives ACS Committee on Training First ACS/DOE Nuclear NSAC Report and Training to Becquerel and Curies PhD in nuclear chemistry of Nuclear and Radiochemists Chemistry Summer from University of notes decline in nuclear and School established California at Berkeley radiochemistry faculty and students 1945 1979 1986 2011 Nuclear WWII – Hiroshima Three Mile Island Chernobyl Fukushima Incidents and Nagasaki Earthquake FIGURE 1-1 Milestones in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. 1-1.eps SOURCES: NRC 1988; Yates 1993; Peterson 1997; Argonne National Laboratory 2012; DOE/NSF 2004; DOE 2011a,b; EIA 2011a,b; Kentis 2011; Nobelprize.org 2012a,b,e; NSF 2011; SNM 2011; UC Berkeley 2012. 5 bitmaps included landscape

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7 INTRODUCTION from approximately 25 million in 1950 to 395 million in 2006 (including mammographic examinations, but not dental radiographic exams) (Mettler et al. 2009). Furthermore, despite the fact that nuclear power often receives nega- tive press coverage and no new U.S. power plants have been built since the 1970s, nuclear energy has been a stable source of U.S. electricity since the 1980s, and in 2010 supplied approximately 20 percent of the U.S. total (EIA 2011a). In a March 2011 poll, 57 percent of Americans said they favor using nuclear power as a source of electricity even in the wake of the 2011 earthquake in Japan and its impacts on the Fukushima Daiichi power plant (Jones 2011). ORIGINS OF THIS STUDY Since the 1970s, reports have raised concerns about the state of the expertise pipeline in nuclear and radiochemistry skills, especially at the Ph.D. level. A steadily declining number of academic staff has resulted in a decrease in the number of both qualified U.S. citizens in the field and research programs at U.S. colleges and universities that produce experts in nuclear security, medicine, energy, environmental management, and basic research. In 1978, the Committee on Training of Nuclear and Radiochemists—a committee of the American Chemical Society’s (ACS) Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (DNCT)—first noted a decline in nuclear and radiochemistry faculty and students in chemistry departments (ACS 1978), as indicated by the number of nuclear chemistry Ph.D.s reported in the National Science Foundation (NSF) annual Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED).1 Between 1960 (the first year nuclear chemistry appeared on the SED questionnaire) and 1971, the number of Ph.D.s awarded each year in nuclear chemistry in the United States grew from 13 to 36, but then fell back to 13 in 1978 and, 10 years later, 7 (NSF 2011). One of the first initiatives to attract and retain undergraduate student interest in the field of nuclear and radiochemistry (a direct result of the ACS Committee on Training of Nuclear and Radiochemists recommendations) that still exists today is the Nuclear Chemistry Summer Schools program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program began in 1984, first hosted in the Nuclear Science Facility at San José State Univer- SED data are based on the selection of “nuclear chemistry” as a subfield of study on the 1 questionnaire. See Survey of Earned Doctorates, https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/ [accessed June 29, 2012].

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8 ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY EXPERTISE sity (SJSU) and subsequently expanded to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (see Box 9-1) (Peterson 1997; Clark 2005; Kinard and Silber 2005). Shortly thereafter, a National Research Council workshop report on Training Requirements for Chemists in Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Industry, and Related Areas (NRC 1988) similarly noted the decline in chemistry expertise. The report called for remedial measures “to alleviate the serious shortage and to ensure a future adequate supply of scientists with nuclear and radiochemical backgrounds and knowledge” and recommended the following (NRC 1988, p.6): 1. Increase the coverage of nuclear and radiochemical concepts and techniques in undergraduate courses to provide chemists with a basic understanding of the field and its applications to science and technology.2 2. Establish Young Investigator Awards for tenure-track faculty at uni- versities, with at least five such awards to be given, each for a 5-year period. 3. Establish training grants and postdoctoral fellowships. 4. Establish a small number of training centers at universities and/or national laboratories for short courses in nuclear and radiochemistry and for retraining scientists and technologists with backgrounds in other areas. Support for the training centers should come in part from the industries and enterprises that depend on the trained personnel. 5. Establish a second summer school in nuclear chemistry for under- graduates at an eastern U.S. site [to augment the DOE-funded SJSU program].3 6. Ensure adequate funding for research from the DOE, National Insti- tutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), Depart- ment of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies to maintain the continued vigor of the field at universities and national laboratories. In particular, identify a specific program at NSF to receive proposals in the field of nuclear and radiochemistry. The American Chemical Society (ACS) has a certification program for undergraduate de- 2 grees in chemistry. Requirements include coursework for students in the core areas of chemis- try defined as analytical, bio-, inorganic, organic, and physical. Although nuclear chemistry is the fundamental basis of chemistry, it is not specified in the ACS certified degree requirements. For more information, see www.acs.org [accessed June 29, 2012]. In 1989 DOE established a second summer school for undergraduates at Brookhaven Na- 3 tional Laboratory in New York (Yates 1993).

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9 INTRODUCTION More broadly, there has been concern about the supply of nuclear sci- ence and engineering expertise in general (NRC 1990). Because nuclear chemistry accounts for a relatively small portion of nuclear science and engineering degrees (Figure 1-2) it is more vulnerable to declines in the numbers of degree holders. In fact, by 2003 the number of nuclear chemistry Ph.D.s had dropped so low (to four) that the category was removed from the SED questionnaire the following year, making it difficult to continue tracking numbers of degree holders in this discipline. Nuclear and radiochemistry needs cannot simply be filled by transfers from the larger groups of engineering and physics degree holders. Much of the chemistry involved in separating actinides, preparing reagents for nuclear medicine, and removing radioactive materials from the environment requires knowledge of synthetic, analytical, and other aspects of chemistry, informa- 250 Nuclear chemistry Number of Earned Doctorate Degrees Nuclear physics 200 Nuclear engineering 150 100 50 0 1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 Academic Year FIGURE 1-2 Number of Ph.D.s per year in selected nuclear science and engineering disciplines, 1950–2007. 1-2.eps NOTE: Survey of Earned Doctorates stopped counting nuclear chemistry degrees after 2003. SOURCE: NSF (2011).

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10 ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY EXPERTISE tion that is well beyond the content of most doctoral programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear physics. Furthermore, degrees in nuclear and radiochemistry are only a very small part of overall numbers in the field of chemistry (doctorates shown in Table 1-1), and, as with engineering and physics degree holders, expertise in this area cannot simply be filled in by the larger number of degree holders in chemistry, because most chemistry courses and laboratory work do not typically include the specialized knowledge in nuclear reactions and decay modes, chemical reactions and chemical properties of radioactive elements and isotopes, or radiolytic processes caused by ionizing radiation produced by nuclear processes. Chemistry was included in a report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee, Education in Nuclear Science (DOE/NSF 2004), with the following recommendations to the DOE, NSF, and larger nuclear sci- ence community: 1. Outreach: Create a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach (highest priority). 2. Ph.D. Production: Increase the number of new Ph.D.s in nuclear science by 20 percent over the next 5–10 years. TABLE 1-1 Trend Data from 2009 National Science Foundation Survey of Earned Doctorates for the Field of Chemistry and Its Associated Subfields Doctorate recipients, by subfield of study: 1999–2009 Subfield of studya 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Chemistry 2,132 1,989 1,982 1,923 2,040 1,986 2,126 2,362 2,324 2,247 2,398 Analytical chemistry 333 326 334 302 339 323 363 367 397 371 363 Inorganic chemistry 279 221 279 250 264 240 256 267 273 299 331 Medicinal/pharmaceutical 131 107 115 99 110 113 110 150 na na na chemistryb Nuclear chemistry 10 9 4 9 4 na na na na na na Organic chemistry 563 525 523 523 557 541 603 624 652 640 688 Physical chemistry 310 271 285 303 321 264 298 376 327 331 320 Polymer chemistry 95 107 107 102 109 116 119 134 122 106 119 Theoretical chemistry 56 52 40 48 49 54 57 86 86 80 85 Chemistry, general 196 261 203 202 184 198 191 211 309 274 304 Chemistry, other 159 110 92 85 103 137 129 147 158 146 188 ABBREVIATIONS: na, not applicable (the field was not on the questionnaire’s specialties list for that year). Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by federal sponsors of the Survey of Earned Doctorates. a This field was removed from the taxonomy in 2007. Graduates who indicated this field in 2007 are represented in the b counts for Chemistry, other. SOURCE: Adapted from NSF (2010), Table 14.

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11 INTRODUCTION 3. Diversity and Professional Development: Enhance participation of women and people of underrepresented backgrounds. 4. Undergraduate Education: • Establish a third summer school for nuclear chemistry modeled after the two existing schools; • Establish a community-developed recognition award for men- toring; and • Establish an online nuclear science instructional materials database; 5. Graduate and Postdoctoral Training: • Establish graduate education and postdoctoral training; • Shorten the median time to a Ph.D. degree; • Develop graduate fellowships in physical sciences (including nuclear science) (this is an endorsement of Secretary of Energy Advisory Board 2003 recommendation); • Establish new training grant opportunities; and • Establish prestigious postdoctoral fellowships with funding from NSF and DOE. Since 2008, new efforts have been launched to increase the number of students in nuclear science and engineering in general. For example, DOE created the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) (DOE 2011c), which provides funding for both research and student scholarships and fellowships at U.S. colleges and universities. NEUP is aimed mainly at nuclear engineer- ing, but awards are open to students in nuclear-related fields, which include radiochemistry, health physics, nuclear physics, and other fields of engineer- ing. In addition, the Department of Homeland Security’s Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) has been leading a joint effort with DOE, DOD, and others to support the nuclear science expertise pipeline and provide a stable foundation to cultivate and maintain a highly qualified technical nuclear forensics (TNF) workforce, which has a larger chemistry component than NEUP (Kentis 2011). These recent efforts, together with programs begun in the 1980s, appear to be having a positive effect in bolstering the current and future availability of expertise, as will be discussed later in the report. However, many ques- tions remain and need to be addressed, and will be the focus of this report as outlined below.4 For more information, see Appendix A: Statement of Task. 4

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12 ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY EXPERTISE • What are the characteristics of nuclear and radiochemistry experts? (Chapter 2) • What is the current and future supply of and demand for nuclear and radiochemistry expertise (summarized in Chapter 8)— in general? (Chapter 2) in academic basic research and education? (Chapter 3) in nuclear medicine? (Chapter 4) in nuclear energy and power generation? (Chapter 5) in nuclear security? (Chapter 6) in environmental management? (Chapter 7) • What is being done to ensure the supply of U.S. nuclear and radio- chemistry expertise, and what are the ways to sustain or increase this supply in the future? (Chapter 9) Chapters 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9 look at nuclear and radiochemistry expertise more broadly than Chapters 4 through 7, which provide more detailed as- sessments of specific nuclear and radiochemistry application areas. Each chapter ends with findings, which are the basis of the committee’s overall recommendations presented in Chapter 10. This report answers these questions by building on past efforts to assess needs in nuclear and radiochemistry and nuclear science and engineering more broadly, and by providing new insights on the unique needs and trends for nuclear and radiochemistry. To accomplish its task, the committee collected new information from guest speakers (Appendix C), databases, websites, and other published infor- mation sources to determine current and likely future supplies of nuclear and radiochemistry experts. The committee surveyed members of professional or- ganizations serving the nuclear/radiochemistry community to determine the demand for experts, and contacted representatives of industry, the national laboratories, and universities. Based on analysis of the resulting information, the committee formulated steps to be taken now and in the future to ensure a sustainable supply of U.S. nuclear and radiochemistry expertise. NOTE ABOUT DATA COLLECTION FOR THIS STUDY The committee found the objectives outlined in the statement of task dif- ficult to meet for a number of reasons that are highlighted in this chapter and throughout the report. The members therefore had to seek alternate sources of information and extrapolate from limited data to understand employment

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13 INTRODUCTION supply and demand for expertise in this discipline. In summary, three major data limitations shaped the committee’s work in this study: 1. Employment classification: Because nuclear and radiochemists are not classified by the SOC, the Bureau of Labor Statistics does not track employment or make projections in these areas. They are treated as a part of the broader occupation of chemists, nuclear technicians, nuclear medicine technologists, or nuclear power plant operators. 2. Licenses or certifications: There are no licenses or certifications required for nuclear and radiochemists, and ACS accreditation of chemistry departments does not have any specific provisions for nuclear chemistry content. As a result, the occupation is defined differently in different sectors and application areas. For the most part, nuclear and radiochemists are self-identified. 3. Degrees: Educational degrees are not specifically granted in nuclear and radiochemistry at the bachelor’s or master’s level. Ph.D.s in nuclear chemistry were captured by the SED in the past, but NSF removed the category from its questionnaire in 2004. The Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) is not useful because it is a sample survey of current Ph.D.s, and the number of nuclear chemists (if they can be identified) is too small for meaningful analysis. The Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) conducted by the Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) are not helpful because there is no designation for nuclear and radiochemistry in the Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) values on which the surveys are based. REFERENCES ACS (American Chemical Society). 1978. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Training of Nuclear and Radiochemists, ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Argonne National Laboratory. 2012. Achievements: Reactors Designed by Argonne National Laboratory [online]. Available: http://www.ne.anl.gov/About/reactors/frt.shtml [accessed April 30, 2012]. BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics). 2010. Nuclear Engineers (17-2161). Occupational Employ- ment and Wages [online]. Available: www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes172161.htm [accessed February 3, 2012]. Choppin, G. R., and J. Rydberg. 1980. Nuclear Chemistry: Theory and Applications. New York: Pergamon Press. Clark, S. B. 2005. The American Chemical Society. Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radio- chemistry. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 263(1):107-110.

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14 ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY EXPERTISE DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2011a. Sites/Locations. Office of Environmental Man- agement. U.S. Department of Energy [online]. Available: www.em.doe.gov/Pages/Sites Locations.aspx [accessed December 7, 2011]. DOE. 2011b. Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) [online]. Available: http://science. energy.gov/np/nsac/ [accessed November 22, 2011]. DOE. 2011c. Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP) [online]. Available: https://inlportal. inl.gov/portal/server.pt/community/neup_home/600 [accessed November 22, 2011]. DOE/NSF (U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation). 2004. Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21st Century [online]. Available: http://science.energy.gov/~/media/np/nsac/pdf/docs/nsac_cr_ education_report_final.pdf [accessed November 22, 2011]. EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration). 2011a. Electric Power Monthly July 2011 with Data for April 2011. DOE/EIA-0226 (2011/07). U.S. Energy Information Administration [online]. Available: http://38.96.246.204/electricity/monthly/current_year/july2011.pdf [accessed November 21, 2011]. EIA. 2011b. Total Energy. U.S. Energy Information Administration [online]. Available: www.eia. gov/totalenergy/ [accessed November 21, 2011]. Friedlander, G., J. W. Kennedy, E. S. Macias, and J. M. Miller. 1981. Nuclear and Radiochem- istry. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Jones, J. M. 2011. Disaster in Japan Raises Nuclear Concerns in U.S. Gallup, March 16, 2011 [online]. Available: www.gallup.com/poll/146660/Disaster-Japan-Raises-Nuclear- Concerns.aspx [accessed November 21, 2011]. Kentis, S. 2011. Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development. Presentation at the Second Meet- ing on Assessing a Future U.S.-based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise, March 16, 2011, Washington, DC. Kinard, W. F., and H. B. Silber. 2005. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San José State University. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 263(1):155-158. Mettler, F. A., M. Bhargavan, K. Faulkner, D. B. Gilley, J. E. Gray, G. S. Ibbott, J. A. Lipoti, M. Mahesh, J. L. McCrohan, M. G. Stabin, B. R. Thomadsen, and T. Yoshizumi. 2009. Ra- diologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: Frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources—1950-2007. Radiology 253(2):520-531. Nobelprize.org. 2012a. Nobel Prize in Physics 1903: Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie. Nobelprize.org [online]. Available: www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/ laureates/1903/ [accessed November 22, 2011]. Nobelprize.org. 2012b. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911: Marie Curie. Nobelprize.org [on- line]. Available: www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1911/press.html [accessed November 21, 2011]. Nobelprize.org. 2012c. Nobel Prize in Physics 1939: Ernest Lawrence [online]. Available: http:// www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1939/ [accessed March 6, 2012]. Nobelprize.org. 2012d. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943: George de Hevesy [online]. Available: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1943/ [accessed March 6, 2012]. Nobelprize.org. 2012e. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953: Edwin M. McMillan and Glenn T. Seaborg [online]. Available: www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/ [accessed November 22, 2011]. NRC (National Research Council). 1988. Training Requirements for Chemists in Nuclear Medi- cine, Nuclear Industry, and Related Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1990. U.S. Nuclear Engineering Education: Status and Prospects. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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15 INTRODUCTION NSF (National Science Foundation). 2010. Data Table 14 in Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities: 2009. NSF 11-306. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation [online]. Available: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf11306/appendix/pdf/tab14.pdf [accessed March 6, 2012]. NSF. 2011. Survey of Earned Doctorates. National Science Foundation [online]. Available: www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvydoctorates/ [accessed November 22, 2011]. Peterson, J. R. 1997. The American Chemical Society’s Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology’s Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 219(2):231-236. SNM (Society of Nuclear Medicine). 2011. About Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Historical Timeline [online]. Available: http://interactive.snm.org/index.cfm?PageID=1107 [accessed November 22, 2011]. UC Berkeley (University of California, Berkeley). 2012. Photographs of Glenn T. Seaborg [on- line]. Available: http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/archive/seaborg-photo-gallery.html [accessed April 30, 2012]. Yates, S. W. 1993. Future challenges in nuclear science education. J. Radioan. Nucl. Chem. 171(1):15-21.

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