ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED

Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise

Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Division on Policy and Global Affairs


NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
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Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Higher Education and Workforce Division on Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract number DE-PI0000010, Task Order #18/DE- DT0002224; the National Science Foundation under grant number CHE-1049500; and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Nuclear Physics, and Office of Nuclear Energy, and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Center under award number DE-PI0000010, Task Order# 12/DE-DT0001917. The report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsi- bility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Refer- ence herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recom- mendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-22534-2 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-22534-5 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http:// www.nap.edu/. Cover art: Images show the range of applications that utilize nuclear and radiochemistry ex- pertise, clockwise from bottom right; nuclear energy (Cherenkov radiation), medical imaging (Positron Emission Tomography abdominal scan), nuclear security (atmospheric testing), and in the center, environmental management (chart of radionuclides). Courtesy: Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West reactor (Cherenkov radiation); Ab- dominal Imaging (Positron Emission Tomography scan); National Nuclear Security Administra- tion Nevada Site Office (atmospheric testing); and Brookhaven National Laboratory (chart of radionuclides). Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and tech- nical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY EXPERTISE Members C. BRADLEY MOORE (Chair), University of California, Berkeley CAROLYN J. ANDERSON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania TRISH BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA CAROL J. BURNS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico RONALD A. CHRZANOWSKI, Exelon Nuclear, Warrenville, Illinois SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University, Pullman RICHARD B. FREEMAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA HOWARD L. HALL, University of Tennessee, Knoxville LESTER R. MORSS, University of Maryland, Columbia GRAHAM PEASLEE, Hope College, Holland, Michigan GEORGINE M. PION, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee HENRY VANBROCKLIN, University of California, San Francisco, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley JOHN F. WACKER, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington National Research Council Staff Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director, TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Responsible Staff Officer AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant ANGELA OLSON, Christine Mirzayan S&T Policy Fellow (January-April 2011) SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Associate Program Officer RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant Other Boards GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Senior Program Associate, Division on Earth and Life Studies Executive Office HEIDI MURRAY-SMITH, Program Officer, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology KAMWETI MUTU, Research Associate, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources JAMES VOYTUCK, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (retired) v

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Members PABLO DEBENEDETTI (Co-chair), Princeton University, New Jersey C. DALE POULTER (Co-chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, The Woodlands, Texas CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C. DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, New Jersey JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts National Research Council Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Associate Program Officer RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant vi

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NUCLEAR RADIATION STUDIES BOARD Members JAY C. DAVIS (Chair), Hertz Foundation, Livermore, California BARBARA J. MCNEIL (Vice Chair), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts JOONHONG AHN, University of California, Berkeley JOHN S. APPLEGATE, Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, University of Wisconsin-Madison PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN, Columbia University, New York, New York ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego JOE GRAY, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland DAVID G. HOEL, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston HEDVIG HRICAK, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York THOMAS H. ISAACS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California ANNIE B. KERSTING, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California MARTHA S. LINET, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland FRED A. METTLER, JR., New Mexico VA Health Care System, Albuquerque BORIS F. MYASOEDOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow RICHARD VETTER, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Retired) RAYMOND G. WYMER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Retired) National Research Council Staff KEVIN CROWLEY, Senior Board Director SARAH CASE, Senior Program Officer JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer OURANIA KOSTI, Program Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Financial and Administrative Associate LAURA LLANOS, Financial and Administrative Associate SHAUNTEE WHETSTONE, Senior Program Assistant ERIN WINGO, Senior Program Assistant vii

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BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE Members WILLIAM E. KIRWAN (Chair), University System of Maryland, Adelphi F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe JEAN-LOU CHAMEAU, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena RITA COLWELL, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Druid Hills, Georgia PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta National Research Council Staff PETER H. HENDERSON, Director GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer SABRINA E. HALL, Program Associate viii

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Preface The critical U.S. need for nuclear and radiochemistry expertise in areas such as nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear security, and radioactive waste clean-up and disposal, combined with a past decline in the number of students graduating in this field drove the request for this comprehensive examination of the current and anticipated supply and demand for expertise, including types and levels of skills, in the United States for medicine, energy, defense, and environment. The Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise was charged (Appendix A) with examining the demand for nuclear chemistry expertise in the United States compared with the production of experts with these skills, and to discuss possible approaches for ensuring adequate availability of these skills, including necessary science and tech- nology training platforms. The committee of 13 members (Appendix B) was convened from ap- proximately January 2011 through December 2011, and met in person four times (Appendix C). Expertise included those with experience in nuclear and radiochemistry, including backgrounds in nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear security, and environmental management and in research manage- ment, university administration, scientific workforce and training indicators, and development of advanced educational programs. ix

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the de- liberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Burt Barnow, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Bruce Bursten, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Jonathan R. D. Earnhart, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, North Carolina Charles Folden, Texas A&M, College Station Graham Kalton, Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland Annie Kersting, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California Robert Latiff, R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, Virginia Paul Mantica, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michael Phelps, University of California, Los Angeles Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclu- sions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edward B. Perrin, University of Washington, Seattle, and Charles P. Casey, University xi

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xii ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS of Wisconsin, Madison. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 3 Origins of this Study, 7 Note about Data Collection for this Study, 12 References, 13 2 Defining Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise 17 Characteristics of Nuclear and Radiochemistry Experts, 17 Research Activity of Nuclear and Radiochemists, 22 Future Supply and Demand for Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise, 24 Findings, 26 References, 27 3 Academic Basic Research and Education 29 Research Opportunities, 29 Nuclear and Radiochemistry Academic Programs, 35 Findings, 44 References, 46 4 Medicine 47 Introduction, 47 A Brief History of Radiopharmaceutical Development, 48 Radionuclide Production, 49 Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, 51 Nuclear Medicine Workforce, 58 Economic Drivers, 65 Finding, 68 References, 69 xiii

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xiv CONTENTS 5 Energy and Power Generation 71 Introduction, 71 A Brief History and Current Status of Nuclear Energy, 72 Workforce Considerations, 77 Findings, 83 References, 83 6 National Security 87 Introduction, 87 Technical Needs and Workforce Considerations, 88 Future Directions, 106 Findings, 110 References, 111 7 Environmental Management 115 Introduction, 115 Research and Educational Opportunities, 117 Workforce Considerations, 119 Finding, 123 References, 123 8 Summary of Supply and Demand for Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise 125 Demand, 125 Supply, 125 Findings, 127 9 Approaches to Assuring U.S. Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise 129 Nuclear Chemistry Summer Schools, 129 Federal Educational and Funding Programs, 131 On-the-Job Training, 139 International Efforts, 146 Findings, 150 References, 151 10 Committee Recommendations 155 Recommendations, 156

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xv CONTENTS Appendixes A Study Statement of Task 161 B Biographical Information 163 Guest Speakers, 163 Committee Members, 167 C Public Meeting Schedule and Guest Speakers 175 D Questionnaire Descriptions 177 Chairs of U.S. Chemistry Departments, 178 Members of Society of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences and the Radiopaharmaceutical Sciences Council of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, 180 Chemistry Managers and Vendors of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants, 183 E ACS DNCT Nuclear and Radiochemistry Faculty List 185 F Data Collection from National Laboratories 189 G Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals 191 H Chemistry Department Chairs 193 I Commercial Nuclear Power Plants 197

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Acronyms AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AAS Associates of Applied Science Degree AAU American Association of Universities ACA Arms Control Association ACC American Chemistry Council ACS American Chemical Society ACTINET-I3 European Commission Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Actinide Science APS American Physical Society ASTC Association of Science and Technology Centers BER Office of Biological and Environmental Remediation BES U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics BNFL British Nuclear Fuels Limited BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory BTSI Bio-tech Systems, Inc CAES Center for Advanced Energy Studies CEA Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives) CEGB Central Electricity Generating Board CFEN Council for Education and Training in Nuclear Energy (Conseil des Formations en Energie Nucléaire) CIP Classification of Instructional Program CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services COREs Centers of Research and Educations xvii

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xviii ACRONYMS CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation CRR Centre for Radiochemistry Research CT Computerized Axial Tomography CTBT Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty CTBTO Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization DATSD(NM) Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Nuclear Matters) DGR Directory of Graduate Research DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security DNCT Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology DNDO DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOE-EM DOE Office of Environmental Management DOE-LM DOE Office of Legacy Management DOE-NP DOE Office of Nuclear Physics DSB Defense Science Board DTC Doctoral Training Centre DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency EDF Electricity of France (Electricité de France) EFRC Energy Frontier Research Center EIA Energy Information Administration EM environmental management EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration FIU Florida International University FRIB Facility for Rare Isotope Beams GAO Government Accountability Office HEGIS Higher Education General Information Survey IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IMV Medical Information Division INEST Institute of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology INL Idaho National Laboratory

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xix ACRONYMS IOM Institute of Medicine IPEDS Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System IRP integrated research projects ITWG International Technical Working Group on Nuclear Smuggling IUP integrated university program J-ACTINET Japan Integrative Infrastructure Initiative for Actinide Science LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LEP lifetime extension program LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MARLAP Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging MU University of Missouri NAE National Academy of Engineering NAMP National Analytical Management Program NCES National Center for Education Statistics NCSL National Conference of State Legislatures NEI Nuclear Energy Institute NEUP Nuclear Energy University Program NIF National Ignition Facility NIH National Institutes of Health NNL National Nuclear Laboratory NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration NP Office of Nuclear Physics NPT Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty NRC National Research Council NSAC Nuclear Science Advisory Committee NSB National Science Board NSF National Science Foundation NSTC National Science and Technology Council NTNF National Technical Nuclear Forensics NTNFC National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center NUCL Global Nuclear Energy Index Fund OMB Office of Management and Budget ORISE Oak Ridge Institute for Scientific Education

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xx ACRONYMS OTID Office of Technology Innovation and Development PET Positron Emission Tomography PQDT ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database QMU quantification of margins and uncertainties R&D research and development RHIC Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RII Radiochemistry and Imaging Instrumentation RPSC Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Council SED Survey of Earned Doctorates S&E science and engineering SJSU San José State University SNM Society of Nuclear Medicine SOC Standard Occupational Classifications SPECT Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography SRS Society of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences SSP Stockpile Stewardship Program TNF Technical Nuclear Forensics UKAEA United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority USNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission WNA World Nuclear Association WSU Washington State University