Building on these primary regulating documents, the special Order of Rospotrebnadzor #88 dated 17 March 2008 issued instructions about the measures on monitoring for infectious and parasitary diseases agents.10 This last order lists four types of research and monitoring centers:

1.   The list of regional centers for monitoring the infectious and parasitic disease agents of pathogenicity groups 2-4 (roughly equivalent to BSL1-3 according to WHO classification)—Appendix 1 in;11

2.   The list of regional centers for monitoring the infectious and parasitic disease agents of pathogenicity groups 1-2 (roughly BSL-3-4 according to WHO classification)—Appendix 2 in;12

3.   The list of reference centers for monitoring the infectious and parasitic disease agents with functions under the International Health Regulations (20050—Appendix 3 in;13

4.   The list of national centers for verification of diagnostic work and national centers that fulfill the functions of State Collections of Rospotrebnadzor—Appendix 4 in.14

All Russian BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories are listed in these Appendices, including Russia’s 17 regional anti-plague centers. Additionally, this Order also describes the area of responsibility of each Institute/Center and charters types of these Institutes/Centers. The special national Sanitary Regulations (SR) one of which is the SP 1.3.1285-03 on “Safe handling of micro-organisms in pathogenic hazard groups I-II”,15 whose observance is mandatory, form the foundations of Russian laboratory practices for these Institutes/Centers as well as public health and educational university laboratories.16 The SR specify a full spectrum of biosafety practices including disinfection procedures, sewage water testing, safe transport of pathogens, and safe practices for hospital work. The SR also describe procedures for obtaining permission to work with recombinant DNA and Hazard Groups I-IV microorganisms from the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Inspection Committee17 and make provisions for laboratory inspections and compliance monitoring.18 Hazard groups I, II, II, and IV in the Russian classification system are roughly equivalent to the WHO’s risk groups IV, III, II, and I, respectively.19

Russia has stringent standards to prevent accidents at high-containment facilities, and the Sanitary and Epidemiological Regulations SP 1.3.1285-03 on “Safe handling of micro-organisms in pathogenic hazard groups I-II” describe the procedures to follow in response.20 It is a result of a long history of work with dangerous pathogens in Russian microbiological laboratories during which time laboratory accidents took place a few times; some important laboratory infection cases that occurred in Russia between 1950 and

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10 Russian State Order #88: http://old.rospotrebnadzor.ru/docs/order/?id=1832.

11 Russian State Order #88: http://old.rospotrebnadzor.ru/docs/order/?id=1832.

12 Russian State Order #88: http://old.rospotrebnadzor.ru/docs/order/?id=1832.

13 Russian State Order #88: http://old.rospotrebnadzor.ru/docs/order/?id=1832.

14 Russian State Order #88: http://old.rospotrebnadzor.ru/docs/order/?id=1832.

15 Russian Sanitary Regulations for special and other dangerous pathogens of 1-2 pathogenicity groups: http://www.lytech.ru/articles_31.htm.

16 E.A. Stavskiy, B. Johnson, R.J. Hawley, J.T. Crane, N.B. Cherny, I.V. Renau, S.V. Netesov, Comparative Analysis of Biosafety Guidelines of the USA, WHO, and Russia (Organizational and Controlling, Medical and Sanitary- Antiepidemiological Aspects). Applied Biosafety, 2003. 8(3): p. 118-

17 Russian Sanitary Regulations for special and other dangerous pathogens of 1-2 pathogenicity groups: http://www.lytech.ru/articles_31.htm.

18 Russian Sanitary Regulations for special and other dangerous pathogens of 1-2 pathogenicity groups: http://www.lytech.ru/articles_31.htm. (page 12)

19 E.A. Stavskiy, B. Johnson, R.J. Hawley, J.T. Crane, N.B. Cherny, I.V. Renau, S.V. Netesov, Comparative Analysis of Biosafety Guidelines of the USA, WHO, and Russia (Organizational and Controlling, Medical and Sanitary- Antiepidemiological Aspects). Applied Biosafety, 2003. 8(3): p. 118-

20 Russian Sanitary Regulations for special and other dangerous pathogens of 1-2 pathogenicity groups: http://www.lytech.ru/articles_31.htm.



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