ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

A-PBA    Asia-Pacific Biosafety Organization
AAHL    Australian Animal Health Laboratory
ABSA    American Biological Safety Association
ABSL    Animal biosafety level
ACH    Air changes per hour
AFB    Acid-fast bacillus
AfBSA    African Biological Safety Organization
AI    Avian influenza
AIDS    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ANBio    Brazilian Biosafety Association
AusAID    Australian Government Overseas Aid Program
        
BATA    Biological Agents and Toxins Act (Singapore)
BD    Border disease
BEN    Biocontainment Engineering Network (IFBA)
BEP    Biosecurity Engagement Program (United States)
BLWG    Biological Laboratory Working Group (Canada/Kyrgyz Republic)
BMBL    Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories
BSA    Biosafety association
BSC    Biological safety cabinet
BSL    Biosafety level
BTRP    Biological Threat Reduction Program
BVD    Bovine viral diarrhoea
BWC    Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
        
CAREC    Caribbean Epidemiology Centre
CCHF    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
CDC    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)
CEN    European Committee for Standardization
CIRMF    International Centre of Medical Research of Franceville
CMLF    Caribbean Med Labs Foundation
COMSTECH    Ministerial Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (Pakistan)
CPA    Mexico-US Commission for the Prevention of Foot and Mouth Disease and Other Exotic Animal Diseases
CPHRL    Central Public Health Reference Laboratory (Republic of Georgia)
CTR    Cooperative Threat Reduction
CWA    CEN Workshop Agreement
        
DARPA    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DTRA    Defense Threat Reduction Agency
        
EDPLN    Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network
ELISA    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EHEC    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli
EU    European Union


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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A-PBA Asia-Pacific Biosafety Organization AAHL Australian Animal Health Laboratory ABSA American Biological Safety Association ABSL Animal biosafety level ACH Air changes per hour AFB Acid-fast bacillus AfBSA African Biological Safety Organization AI Avian influenza AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ANBio Brazilian Biosafety Association AusAID Australian Government Overseas Aid Program BATA Biological Agents and Toxins Act (Singapore) BD Border disease BEN Biocontainment Engineering Network (IFBA) BEP Biosecurity Engagement Program (United States) BLWG Biological Laboratory Working Group (Canada/Kyrgyz Republic) BMBL Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories BSA Biosafety association BSC Biological safety cabinet BSL Biosafety level BTRP Biological Threat Reduction Program BVD Bovine viral diarrhoea BWC Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention CAREC Caribbean Epidemiology Centre CCHF Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States) CEN European Committee for Standardization CIRMF International Centre of Medical Research of Franceville CMLF Caribbean Med Labs Foundation COMSTECH Ministerial Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (Pakistan) CPA Mexico-US Commission for the Prevention of Foot and Mouth Disease and Other Exotic Animal Diseases CPHRL Central Public Health Reference Laboratory (Republic of Georgia) CTR Cooperative Threat Reduction CWA CEN Workshop Agreement DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency EDPLN Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EHEC Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli EU European Union 93

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94 Biosecurity Challenges FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation (United States) FMD Foot and mouth disease FTA Flinders Technology Associates GAO Government Accountability Office (United States) GOARN Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network GLI Global Laboratory Initiative GMO Genetically modified organism GMP Good manufacturing practice HEPA High-efficiency particulate air HFRS Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HPAI Highly pathogenic avian influenza HSADL High Security Animal Disease Laboratory HUS Haemolytic uraemic syndrome HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning IAP InterAcademy Panel on International Issues IAP BWG InterAcademy Panel on International Issues Biosecurity Working Group IATA International Air Transport Association IBC Institutional Biosafety Committee IFBA International Federation of Biosafety Associations IHR International Health Regulations INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICLS International Council of Life Sciences IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IFA Immunofluorescence assays IgM Immunoglobulin M IPM Institut Pasteur du Maroc IPPC International Plant Protection Convention ISO International Organization for Standardization IVI International Vaccine Institute JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency KCDC Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention LAI Laboratory-acquired infection or laboratory-associated infection LANL Los Alamos National Lab LBM Laboratory Biosafety Manual LPAI Low pathogenic avian influenza LRN Laboratory Response Network MAC Medical Advisory Committee (Australia, AAHL) MARA Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Turkey) MDR-TB Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MORU Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit

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95 Abbreviations and Acronyms NGO Non-governmental organization NIAID National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (United States) NIH National Institutes of Health (United States) NIHRD National Institute of Health Research and Development (Indonesia) NIID National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Japan) NRC National Research Council (United States) OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OIE World Organisation for Animal Health OIE CC World Organisation for Animal Health Collaborating Center OIE RL World Organisation for Animal Health Reference Laboratory OUCRU-HCM Oxford University Clinical Research Unit—Ho Chi Minh City PCR Polymerase chain reaction POC Point-of-care PPE Personal protective equipment RKI Robert Koch Institute RT-PCR Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction SAPO Specified Animal Pathogens Order (U.K.) SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome SEAICRN Southeast Asian Clinical Infectious Diseases Network SIV Simian immunodeficiency virus SNL Sandia National Laboratories SOP Standard operating procedure TB Tuberculosis TÜBA Turkish Academy of Sciences UNAS Uganda National Academy of Science UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization VSVRI Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute WHO World Health Organization XDR Extremely drug resistant

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