CHALLENGES IN CHARACTERIZING
SMALL PARTICLES
Exploring Particles from the Nano- to Microscale

 

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

 

 

 

Tina Mosciangioli and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs


Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies


 

 

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Tina Masciangioli and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon the work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under award num- ber DE-FG02-07ER15872, the National Institutes of Health under award number N01-OD-4-2139, TO# 25, and the National Science Foundation under grant number CHE-0936388. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Govern- ment. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22590-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-22590-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Cover art: Ionic map of atmospheric particles enriched in sulfate (green) and methane (blue) typical for a marine environment. Courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern - ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE MARK A. BARTEAU, Co-Chair, University of Delaware, Newark WILLIAM F. CARROLL, JR., Co-Chair, Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas DONNA G. BLACKMOND, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California MICHAEL R. BERMAN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, Virginia CAROL BEWLEY, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland PAUL F. BRYAN, Independent Consultant EMILIO BUNEL, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois ALLISON CAMPBELL, WR Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, Washington MARK CARDILLO, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, New York A.WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., Pennsylvania State University, University Park RICHARD R. CAVANAGH, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland KELSEY COOK, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, D.C. JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS, University of Florida, Gainesville TERESA FRYBERGER, NASA Earth Sciences Division, Washington, D.C. MIGUEL GARCIA-GARIBAY, University of California, Los Angeles JOHN W. KOZARICH, ActivX Biosciences Inc., La Jolla, California LUIS E. MARTINEZ, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida JOHN J. MCGRATH, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia KENNETH G. MOLOY, DuPont Company Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware ROBERT PEOPLES, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. MATTHEW PLATZ, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland ERIC ROHLFING, U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, Maryland JAMES M. SOLYST, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, Virginia KATHLEEN J. STEBE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PATRICIA A. THIEL, Iowa State University, Ames LEVI THOMPSON,* University of Michigan, Ann Arbor RICHARD P. VAN DUYNE, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Responsible Staff Officer DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant * These members of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable served on the Challenges in Characterizing Small Particles: Exploring Particles from the Nano- to Microscales workshop organizing committee, but they were not involved in the writing of this workshop summary. In addition to the asterisked members above, Barbara Finlayson-Pitts of the University of California, Irvine and Douglas Ray of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also oversaw the planning of the workshop. v

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY PABLO DEBENEDETTI, Co-Chair, Princeton University, New Jersey C. DALE POULTER, Co-Chair, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey DAVID CHRISTIANSON, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC, The Woodlands, Texas CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico MICHAEL C. KERBY, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Houston, Texas CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder SANDER G. MILLS, Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corporation, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey DAVID MORSE, Corning, Inc., Corning, New York ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C. DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hopewell Township, New Jersey DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant vi

OCR for page R1
Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council. It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemistry-related issues affecting government, industry, and universi - ties. Organized by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communi - cation among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. One way it does this is by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national or more widespread attention. On October 25-26, 2010, the CSR held a 1.5-day workshop that explored new oppor- tunities, challenges, and approaches to characterizing small particles and understanding their impacts. Small particles—about one nanometer to tens of microns—are ubiquitous in the natural and man-made worlds. In many scientific and engineering domains, uncer- tainty about the properties and chemical composition of small particles limits our ability to understand, predict, and control their applications and impacts. The workshop included several overview presentations highlighting the critical impor- tance of small particles in environmental science, materials and chemical sciences, biologi - cal science, and engineering. In addition, several presentations highlighted new advances in characterizing small particles, including static, dynamic, experimental, computational, and theoretical approaches. This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. In accordance with the NRC’s policies, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers and workshop participants. In addition, the organizing committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. This workshop summary has been prepared by the rapporteurs Joe Alper and Tina Masciangioli as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. vii

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published sum - mary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Patricia Thiel, Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory, Iowa Darlene Solomon, Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California Renyi Zhang, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Kai Loon Chen, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Richard Flagan, California Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsi - bility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authors and the institution. ix

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents 1 OVERVIEW 1 About This Document, 1 Workshop Overview, 1 Organization of This Workshop Summary, 3 2 WHAT ARE SMALL PARTICLES AND WHY ARE THEY IMPORTANT? 5 Introduction, 5 Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate, 5 Health Impacts of Ambient Air Particles, 9 Particles in Soil and Water, 12 Particles in Biological Systems, 15 Open Discussion, 18 3 ANALYSIS AND IMAGING OF SMALL PARTICLES 21 Multidimensional Characterization of Individual Aerosol Particles, 21 Materials Design and Synthesis, 23 Particle Characterization Needs for Nanocomposites, 26 Quantifying the Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles, 27 Particle Design and Synthesis for Catalysts, 29 Nanoparticle Dispersions, 31 Decoding the Universe at the Nanoscale, 33 Open Discussion, 35 4 ANALYZING NANOPARTICLES IN COMPLEX MIXTURES 37 Design and Manufacture of Delivery Forms for Small Particles, 37 Particles in the Environment, 40 Surface Chemistry, Transformations, and Global Impacts, 43 5 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SMALL PARTICLES 47 From Atomistic Simulations to Health Effects, 47 Scaling Simulations to Model Environmental Impacts, 49 Open Discussion, 52 6 WORKSHOP WRAP-UP SESSION 53 Path Forward, 53 xi

OCR for page R1
xii CONTENTS Addressing Complexity, 53 Common Ground, 53 Funding Opportunities, 54 Open Discussion, 54 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 59 B Poster Abstracts 63 C Participant Biographies 73 Speakers 73 Workshop Organizing Committee 77 D Workshop Attendees 79 E Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 81 F References 83

OCR for page R1
Acronyms AMPI atomistic model for particle interception API active pharmaceutical ingredient CAPs concentrated ambient PM2.5 CFC chlorofluorocarbon CSN Chemical Speciation Network CSR Chemical Sciences Roundtable CT computed tomography EDS energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy EELS electron energy loss spectroscopy EPA Environmental Protection Agency IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research NIBIB National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering NIGMS National Institute of General Medical Sciences NIH National Institutes of Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOM natural organic matter NPACT National Particle Component Toxicity Initiative NRC National Research Council NRL Naval Research Laboratory NSF National Science Foundation ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PM particulate matter SAX small-angle x-ray scattering SBIR Small Business Innovation Research SEM scanning electron microscopy SOPS Engineering Research Center for Structured Organic Particulate Systems STEM scanning transmission electron microscopy STM scanning tunneling microscopy TD-CIMS thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer TEM transmission electron microscopy xiii

OCR for page R1