a.  The current 5-year defense budget continues under identical basic assumptions.

b.  An abrupt change in security threats calls for an abrupt 35 percent DOD budget increase over that in (a) above.

c.  A peace dividend calls for reallocating 25 percent of the DOD budget in (a) to other national needs.

Summary of Lead-off Presentation

Rolf Lehming, director of NSF’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) introduced the topic of Panel 2—estimating STEM workforce needs under future scenarios—with his presentation on background data relevant to the STEM workforce needs of DOD. He began by acknowledging the use of the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) and stated that he would be giving a brief sketch of the civilian side of DOD, including data by major job title (Figure 4-3).

Lehming noted that NASA is the largest STEM employer in the federal government. He then discussed the trends in STEM employment in the federal government, such as the trends in minority employment. Here he noted that the ability to attract STEM workers from minority populations will be an ongoing focus; he mentioned that DOD is doing a commendable job of recruiting minorities vis-à-vis the percentage in the population.

Lehming then presented a historical look over the 1999-2009 period at the number of science and engineering bachelor’s degrees by broad field (e.g., engineering). Temporary-visa holders are a small portion of these. He noted that Asian Americans have more than a pro rata number of natural science and engineering degrees. (NS&E in this presentation includes the three basic sciences, but also ocean and Earth sciences as well as information technology [IT]; it does not include psychology or social sciences.) Temporary-visa holders account for 5 percent of such degrees in the life sciences and 25 percent overall. In summary, Lehming stated that DOD is a major employer


FIGURE 4-3 Department of Defense science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce employment by major job title: 1999-2009. SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, special tabulations (2011) from data provided by the Office of Personnel Management and the Defense Manpower Data Center.

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