manage change in a time of change (Box 5.5). IPY showed that training and continued exposure of scientists to addressing real and present issues increases their effectiveness in connecting knowledge with action, by improving communication skills, influencing research agendas, and by direct experience of navigating the line between communication and advocacy. This sets a stage of readiness within the polar community that is important for tackling future research endeavors. Looking ahead, further development of two-way communication, observing systems, and predictive capability is needed to maintain and extend connecting knowledge with action. At the time of this report-writing, the concluding IPY Conference is scheduled to take place in April 2012, and will highlight this theme of “knowledge to action.”

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