Chris Rapley, The Science Museum, is professor of Climate Science at University College London (UCL). He earned an M.Sc. in Radio Astronomy at Jodrell Bank in Cheshire followed by a Ph.D. at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) at University College London on the origin of the cosmic soft X-ray diffuse background. Following a decade as the founder and head of the Earth Observation group and associate director at UCL’s Mullard Space Science laboratory. Professor Rapely was appointed Executive Director of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme IGBP, which he ran from 1994 to 1998. He was director of the British Antarctic Survey from 1998 to 2007 during which time he was a vice president then president of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the chair of the planning group that developed the International Polar Year 2007-2008. He was director of the Science Museum from 2007 to 2010, during which time the Museum delivered its Centenary programme, including the new gallery “Atmosphere: Exploring Climate Science.” In 2008 he was awarded the Edinburgh Science Medal for “professional achievements judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.”

Lisa Speer, Natural Resources Defense Council, is the director of the International Oceans Program at NRDC, an environmental organization dedicated to protecting natural resources and public health with offices in the United States and China. Her work currently focuses on conservation and management of the Arctic marine environment, and marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, an area known as the “high seas.” Ms. Speer conducts advocacy in a variety of international forums to promote integrated, ecosystem-based management of human activities on the high seas and in the Arctic, with a particular focus on marine fisheries. She received her Master’s degree from Yale University and her Bachelor’s degree from Mount Holyoke College. Ms. Speer has served as a member of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, and on ad hoc NRC study committees.

Thomas N. Taylor, University of Kansas, is Roy A. Roberts Distinguished Professor at the University of Kansas. He is also senior curator of the Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, and courtesy professor for the Department of Geology. He also serves as director of the State of Kansas NSF EPSCoR Program. He earned his Ph.D. in botany and geology from the University of Illinois in 1964. Dr. Taylor is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He also serves on the National Science Foundation Education and Human Resources Advisory Committee, as chair of the Strategic Planning and Assessment Committee for National Institutes of Health BRIN KU Medical Center, on Senator Pat Roberts’ Advisory Committee in Science, Technology, and on the Future Kansas Implementation Advisory Committee, the National Science Foundation GPRA Performance Assessment Advisory Committee, the National Science Foundation MPSAC/EHRAC Committee to Review Undergraduate Education in Math and the Physical Sciences, Bioinformatics Core Advisory Committee. He serves on multiple NSF EPSCoR Advisory Boards and committees. He served on the Polar Research Board for the NRC. In addition he served as faculty advisor to the chancellor of the Ohio Board of Regents and on the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable for the State of Ohio.

Wilford F. Weeks, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, is professor emeritus of geophysics at the University of Alaska. His primary area of interest is in the properties and geophysical behavior of the sea ice covers of the world’s oceans. Specific areas he has investigated include interrelations between growth conditions and the structure, composition, and mechanical and electromagnetic properties of sea ice; formation and statistical characteristics of pressure ridges; ice-induced gouging of the sea floor, bearing capacity and forces exerted by moving ice; and application of varied remote sensing techniques to sea ice problems and general problems relating to atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions. Dr. Weeks is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He has also had considerable experience concerning the geophysics and engineering of snow and ice masses in general, including the structure of lake and river ice, winter heat loss from rivers, avalanche forecasting, properties of alpine snow, and temperature distributions and snow property variations in central Greenland. Dr. Weeks received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.

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