element in IPY. At its core, IPY was about polar research, so Chapter 3 describes significant scientific advances and discoveries during this period. Chapter 4 addresses the impact of IPY on tools used for polar research, and Chapter 5 focuses on the all-important need to translate scientific knowledge into actionable information. These chapters largely focus on the successes of IPY. The committee hopes that the final chapter, with reflections on the entire IPY process and experience, will prove useful to those interested in extending the series of international polar years in the future.