4

Scientific Tools and Infrastructure

The IPY Vision Report (NRC, 2004) highlighted the view that the polar environment is a tightly coupled system and that “IPY 2007-2008 is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the physical, biological, and chemical processes in the polar regions and their global linkages and impacts.” This system perspective embraced by the IPY research community (Overpeck, 2005) differed from the more disciplinary focus of previous IPY/IGY programs (Wilson, 1961). It also required innovations, such as research tools that enabled simultaneous analysis of multiple climate system components; coordinated use of in situ and remote sensing observational instrumentation; access to nontraditional data sources; and a diversity of new and existing computer models. The approach was inherently multidisciplinary and both facilitated and benefited from international collaboration for the establishment, operation, and maintenance of observing networks and other tools and resources.

The following sections present examples of research tools and their use during IPY, with descriptions of new tools and observatories that were made possible by international organizational arrangements. These developments facilitate the collection of data sets that support examination from a system perspective.

EXISTING OBSERVATIONS AND PLATFORMS

The large areal extent of the two polar regions makes observing these environments a significant challenge. The areas covered by the Arctic Basin (~12.2 × 106 km2), Arctic sea ice at maximum extent (~15 × 106 km2), Southern Ocean south of the Polar Front (~35 × 106 km2), and Antarctic continent (13.9 × 106 km2) are each appreciably larger than the contiguous United States of America (~7.8 × 106 km2).

When IPY began, observing stations in these regions had limited space and time coverage. For example, although the longest standard weather record in the U.S. Arctic (in Barrow) dates from 1901, there are vast areas such as the main Arctic Basin and the interior of East Antarctica for which traditional meteorological observations are infrequent or lacking. Therefore, one of the main thrusts of IPY was to establish the capacity to acquire bipolar observational data that could serve as a reference point in long-term examinations of temporal and spatial changes, both in comparison to the earlier IPY and IGY observations and perhaps, more importantly, to those of the future.

Satellite Observations

Satellite-based observations are an essential component of any program attempting to provide system observations over such large regions. During IPY, data collected from a constellation of satellites (Figure 4.1) contributed to research related to melting or growth of polar ice sheets and of sea ice, elevation changes in sea level, ice-climate feedback loops, cloud heights, aerosol distributions, Earth’s radiation balance and temperature, vegetation canopy heights, and global biomass estimates.



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4 Scientific Tools and Infrastructure T he IPY Vision Report (NRC, 2004) high- challenge. The areas covered by the Arctic Basin (~12.2 × 106 km2), Arctic sea ice at maximum extent (~15 × 106 lighted the view that the polar environment is km2), Southern Ocean south of the Polar Front (~35 a tightly coupled system and that “IPY 2007- × 106 km2), and Antarctic continent (13.9 × 106 km2) 2008 is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the physical, biological, and chemical processes in the are each appreciably larger than the contiguous United States of America (~7.8 × 106 km2). polar regions and their global linkages and impacts.” This system perspective embraced by the IPY research W hen IPY began, observing stations in these community (Overpeck, 2005) differed from the more regions had limited space and time coverage. For exam- disciplinary focus of previous IPY/IGY programs ple, although the longest standard weather record in the ( Wilson, 1961). It also required innovations, such U.S. Arctic (in Barrow) dates from 1901, there are vast as research tools that enabled simultaneous analysis areas such as the main Arctic Basin and the interior of of multiple climate system components; coordinated East Antarctica for which traditional meteorological use of in situ and remote sensing observational instru- observations are infrequent or lacking. Therefore, one mentation; access to nontraditional data sources; and of the main thrusts of IPY was to establish the capacity a diversity of new and existing computer models. to acquire bipolar observational data that could serve The approach was inherently multidisciplinary and as a reference point in long-term examinations of tem- b oth facilitated and benefited from international poral and spatial changes, both in comparison to the collaboration for the establishment, operation, and earlier IPY and IGY observations and perhaps, more maintenance of observing networks and other tools importantly, to those of the future. and resources. The following sections present examples of research Satellite Observations tools and their use during IPY, with descriptions of new tools and observatories that were made possible Satellite-based observations are an essential com- by international organizational arrangements. These ponent of any program attempting to provide system developments facilitate the collection of data sets that observations over such large regions. During IPY, data support examination from a system perspective. collected from a constellation of satellites (Figure 4.1) contributed to research related to melting or growth of polar ice sheets and of sea ice, elevation changes in EXISTING OBSERVATIONS sea level, ice-climate feedback loops, cloud heights, AND PLATFORMS aerosol distributions, Earth’s radiation balance and The large areal extent of the two polar regions temperature, vegetation canopy heights, and global makes observing these environments a significant biomass estimates. 67

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68 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 FIGURE 4.1 Overview of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing satellites in operation during IPY. Many sensors carried on these platforms were supported either in full, or in part, by international partners. SOURCE: NASA. Satellite development and launch is a lengthy community in achieving a rapid recovery from the process, typically extending over a period of 5 to over failed launch of CryoSat-1 in 2005 with the successful 10 years. Thus, by the time the planning of IPY was launch of CryoSat-2 in 2009. completed, it was too late to develop and launch satel- S atellite observations of the polar regions face lite systems with a specific IPY focus. Optimization of several challenges not encountered in lower latitudes. deployment of satellite-based remote sensing systems Foremost among these challenges is the lack of data related to any broad-based observational program centered on the poles, which arises because Earth requires that the general program outline and require- observing satellites rarely pass directly over the poles. ments be established well in advance of the actual Rotation of the satellite can avoid this data gap, but initiation of the program and be transmitted to the this is rarely done; one exception was the Radarsat-1 agencies involved in satellite operations. For example, satellite, which was rotated once on-orbit to obtain discussions that ultimately led to the ICESat satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the entire dated back as far as 1979 (Science and Applications Antarctic ice sheet. These data provide long-term time Working Group, 1979) (launch date was January 12, series of ice sheet changes. 2003). On the other hand, the occurrence and urgency T he long periods of darkness and regions of of the IPY strengthened the voice of the polar research extensive cloud cover, which preclude observations

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69 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.2 Sample of the “you are there” true-color representation of Antarctica possible with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) draped on a digital elevation mod- el. The region is near McMurdo Station with the Dry Valleys on the right and Koettlitz Glacier on the left. SOURCE: NASA. that depend on reflected visible light, such as ocean IPY throughout the scientific communities and fund- color, provide additional challenges for high-latitude ing agencies by demonstrating the clear benefit of col- satellite observations. Frequent and consistent satellite lecting consistent data of both polar regions in a short observations in these regions require passive or active period of time as a unique observational benchmark. A microwave systems, which are independent of light and data collection plan, crafted by GIIPSY from multiple cloud cover. However, current passive satellite observa- scientist requests into a specific set of data requests, was tions have coarse spatial resolution (tens of kilometers). successfully brokered by the STG with 14 space agen- cies.1 Once IPY was under way, GIIPSY-orchestrated Active systems such as SAR and scatterometry provide high-resolution all-weather data and have proven to data were directly responsible for providing a wide be excellent tools in studies of ice motion and ice type. variety of compelling IPY projects with essential data, SAR observations only date from 1991 (ERS-1) and including pole-to-coast multifrequency measurements of scatterometric studies of sea ice are even more recent. ice-sheet surface velocity, repeat fine-resolution mapping The development and operation of satellite pro- of the entire Southern Ocean sea ice cover, a complete grams is expensive, making it doubtful that any one visible and thermal infrared snapshot of circumpo- country will be able to afford or even have the technical lar permafrost, snapshots of lake and river freeze-up capabilities necessary for launching the suites of satel- and breakup, The impressive success of this effort has lites required by increasingly sophisticated observing resulted in the continuation of the STG and serves as programs. The number of new U.S. Earth observing much as an important legacy of IPY as the vast wealth satellite missions was reduced in the first decade of this of satellite data that were collected during IPY. The Landsat Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA2), an century, which set the stage for less extensive observa- tional capacities just as the pace of change increased. online atlas and digital library of the continent, is an As a result, international coordination is all the more excellent example of the powerful effect of using large, important and will undoubtedly be required to focus comprehensive satellite data sets in innovative ways existing national or foreign satellite capabilities on specific future IPY-like field projects. 1 Participating International Space Agencies: Agenzia Spaziale A particularly successful execution of this type of Italiana, Canadian Space Agency, China Meteorological Admin- istration, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (France), Deutsches international cooperation by multiple national space Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, (Germany), European Space agencies was the coordination of satellite observ - Agency, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Me - ing sensors managed by the IPY Space Task Group teorological Satellites, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (Portugal), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, NASA, NOAA, (STG). The conceptual birth of this project was a Polar Russian Federal Service for Hydrometorology and Environmental Snapshot from Space, which became the IPY project Monitoring, WMO, World Climate Research Programme-Climate GIIPSY (Global Inter-agency IPY Polar Snapshot and Cryopshere. Year). It figured heavily in garnering enthusiasm for 2 http://lima.usgs.gov/.

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70 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 FIGURE 4.3 Tracks of IceBridge flights during March to May 2009 on which data were collected by the Airborne Topographic Mapper, a laser altimetric instrument. Similar patterns of spa- tially concentrated flights have been completed annually in both the Arctic and Antarctic in subsequent years. SOURCE: NASA. during IPY. Documenting changes in the distribution of Although the primary purpose of the program is to Emperor penguin rookeries was already mentioned as a fill in the data collection gap between ICESat, which significant discovery enabled by LIMA, but the manner provided limited data because of power supply prob- in which the mosaic was created set a new standard in lems, and the launch of ICESat-2 estimated for 2016, the production of such continental-scale mosaics (Figure it contributed directly to IPY and to the longevity of 4.2). This mosaic was created using over 1,000 ETM+ data collection initiated under IPY. (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) images at 15-meter spatial resolution, which are produced by an eight-band Observing Networks multispectral scanning radiometer on the Landsat 7 satellite. Previous mosaics at this scale served only as an A number of observing networks were established index to the original data and relied on users to return during IPY that attempted to add substantial value to to single images to perform quantitative analysis. LIMA multiple scientific endeavors by combining or extend- data are scientifically accurate surface reflectances and ing the data collection capabilities beyond what single thus can be used immediately for scientific inquiry, countries or projects could either install or sustain. A empowering many more scientific users. brief description of some of the different observing In the face of diminished future observational networks developed for and utilized as part of IPY capability, the IceBridge program represents a novel follows. approach to addressing a gap in satellite observational capability at a critical time and is an important addition Arctic Observing Networks to the normal NASA program for satellite-based obser- vations of the polar regions. This 6-year aircraft-borne In the Arctic, the Sustaining Arctic Observing remote sensing program provides an extensive survey of Networks (SAON) aggregated smaller national obser- sea and glacial ice masses in both polar regions and is vational networks into a broad international coalition. done in cooperation with Australian, British, Canadian, This concept was fostered in the United States as the and French investigators. The data collected from this Arctic Observing Network (AON; a major U.S. gov- program provide a focused view of a region (Figure 4.3), ernment agency IPY initiative, with a majority of the as opposed to the broader view obtained from satellites. support from the National Science Foundation [NSF]).

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71 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.4 AON, a major initiative during IPY, encompassed physical, biological, and human observations of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The geographical coverage of U.S. AON projects can be seen in this map. SOURCE: Arctic Research Mapping Application. Initially designed to support the data needs of the beginning to publish results4 with more expected in Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) the coming years. program, AON’s multidisciplinary constitution encom- Separate disciplines within polar science also estab- passed physical, biological, and human observations lished broad networks. One example is the integrated (including local/indigenous knowledge) of the land, Arctic Ocean Observing System (iAOOS), which was ocean, and atmosphere. Data products, dissemination, formulated by the Ocean Sciences Board and the Cli- and archiving of AON-collected data are being handled mate and Cyrosphere (CliC) Project to explore answers by the Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Ser- to a number of specific questions concerning the Arctic vice (CADIS3) (see Data Management section later in Ocean and its peripheral seas. The iAOOS framework this chapter). The geographical coverage of U.S. AON was designed to collect ocean observations from the projects can be seen in Figure 4.4. The international seabed to the surface and across both major inflow/out- basis of IPY blended the ongoing observations from the flow pathways between Arctic and sub-Arctic waters as U.S.-only AON program with the active international well as a pan-Arctic Ocean transect. As of 2007, over projects under the SAON program. These international 156 moorings were in place, and these increased to 173 collaborations shared many of the same objectives, but by 2008 (Dickson and Fahrbach, 2011). The regions with expanded pan-Arctic coverage. The coordina- of interest included the main Arctic Ocean basin; its tion of SAON is still evolving, and researchers are just 4 In particular, several results in Chapter 3 on Marine Ecosystems 3 in a Warming World rely on SAON data. http://www.aoncadis.org/about/aon-projects.htm.

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72 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 FIGURE 4.5 The integrated Arctic Ocean Observing System (iAOOS) was designed to collect ocean observations from the seabed to the surface and across both major inflow/outflow pathways between Arctic and sub-Arctic waters as well as a pan-Arctic Ocean transect. This map shows the distribution of all 173 current meter moorings and arrays across the iAOOS domain in 2008. Small numerals in red refer to the number of moorings in an array, where these are too numerous to dis- tinguish individually. SOURCE: Dickson and Fahrbach, 2011. peripheral seas; the Canadian Archipelago; the Fram, warmest observed in over 100 years (Dmitrenko et Davis, and Bering Straits; Greenland; and the Rus- al., 2008; Holliday et al., 2007; Polyakov et al., 2007). sian Arctic. The pattern of moorings deployed during New modeling of the flow by Karcher et al. (2007) IPY concentrated arrays at four major inflow/outflow show that the this warm Atlantic water layer may regions (Figure 4.5). In addition, some of the data sets have less impact on sea ice as it circulates around the were collected by remotely controlled SeaGliders (dis- Arctic Basin. Instead it may have more influence on cussed later in this chapter), which is a new technology the density contrast and height of this water mass that will undoubtedly be used extensively in the future. where it exists over the Denmark Strait overflow, thus Extensive advance coordination was needed to success- influencing the thermohaline conveyor into the future. fully collect a spatially extensive data set owing to the Continued monitoring of this evolving system speaks fact that these regions included all nations bordering to the legacy this observing system will have to improv- on the Arctic Ocean. ing our understanding of the sensitivity of the northern Another aspect of iAOOS was the use of autono- seas to climate change. mous ice-based observatories. The ice-based observa- The overall goal was to deploy observing sites across tory concept has developed over the last 30 years, but the Arctic during IPY with the intent that a subset of the it was significantly advanced during IPY. These assem- sites would remain in operation after IPY. The SAON blages of colocated instruments returned continuous process built upon the scientific community’s experience information about the atmospheric boundary layer in the Arctic and clearly facilitated deployment of the and surface radiation budget, the evolving snow and various IPY Arctic observing programs. By improving sea ice thickness, temperature and salinity profiles, and international coordination and planning, SAON helped temporal stress history and deformation, as well as the to provide better coverage and perhaps even improved upper ocean stratification, water properties (including cost-effectiveness. One important goal was to aid in biologically relevant fields), lateral velocity, and mixed- developing sustained support for such networks beyond layer turbulence intensity and associated vertical fluxes IPY because long-term support for monitoring pro- (Figure 4.6). Large amounts of data were collected via grams has invariably proven to be difficult. It is hoped the ice-based observatories and are still being collected. that the SAON program will contribute to the temporal Without doubt, new thinking has emerged about extension of this data set, thereby ensuring an important the role of the arctic seas in climate. For example, the contribution to climate change research. temperature and salinity of waters flowing into the An important new data product, the Sea Ice for Norwegian Sea at the Scottish shelf and elsewhere Walrus Outlook (SIWO), emerged from these observ- along the Kola Peninsula in the Kara Sea are the ing networks, and has had a direct and immediate

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73 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE impact on Arctic residents. As a key supporter of the U.S. AON, SEARCH5 (Study of Environmental Arc- tic Change), an interagency activity to understand the broad, interrelated changes occurring in the Arctic, brought together a diverse group of specialists to share and discuss sea ice distribution predictions for the anticipated sea ice minimum and facilitate the exchange of approaches and the successes (or failures) of the resulting predictions so that forecasting skill could be improved. The forecasts were then provided to native hunting groups in the form of the SIWO. Ultimately, observations made during hunts were provided to the forecasting group, with the expectation that this would contribute to improved 10-day weather and ice fore- casts provided to communities located along the coasts of the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. Antarctic Observing Networks In the Southern Hemisphere, planning for a net- work of ocean observations began during IPY. This proj- ect, the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS), is designed to provide multidisciplinary observations from one of the least well-observed parts of the ocean. The region is remote, and its climate and associated sea state are sufficiently formidable to limit observations. The goal of SOOS is to utilize the unprecedented level of cooperation available under IPY to gain a synoptic snapshot of the state of the Southern Ocean, using both established tools and new technology such as cryospheric satellites, autonomous profiling floats, and miniaturized sensors deployable on marine mammals. When it is implemented, SOOS is designed to provide the long- term measurements required to improve understanding of climate change and variability, biogeochemical cycles, FIGURE 4.6 The concept of the autonomous ice-based observa- and the coupling between climate and marine ecosys- tory has developed over the last 30 years, but it was significantly tems. The full SOOS plan describes the combination of advanced during IPY. Shown here is a schematic for an ice- sustained observations needed to address the key science tethered profiler (ITP). The ITP system consists of a small surface challenges identified for the Southern Ocean (Rintoul capsule that sits atop an ice flow and supports a plastic-jacketed wire rope tether that extends through the ice and down into the et al., 2011). SOOS consists of a series of elements that ocean, ending with a weight (intended to keep the wire vertical). allow these science challenges to be addressed. A cylindrical underwater instrument (in shape and size much The primary SOOS elements are repeat hydrogra- like an Argo float) mounts on this tether and cycles vertically along it, carrying oceanographic sensors through the water phy, enhanced Southern Ocean Argo system, underway column. Water property data are telemetered from the ITP to sampling from ships, time-series stations and moni- shore in near-real time. SOURCE: Richard Krishfield, Woods toring of key passages, animal-borne sensors, sea ice Hole Oceanographic Institution. 5 www.arcus.org/search/index.php.

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74 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 observations and enhanced ice drifter arrays, obser- other remote regions of the world. For example, about vation of ocean circulation under ice and ice shelves, 50 autonomous seismic stations operated continuously enhanced meteorological observations, remote sensing, in the Antarctic interior during IPY as contrasted and inclusion of observations of lower trophic level pro- with one (South Pole) prior to IPY. The continued cesses and ecological monitoring. The general location operation of many of these stations is an important of proposed repeat hydrography and Argo float obser- legacy of IPY. Data from these stations will contribute vations (Figure 4.7) illustrate the region covered by the important insights into glacial rebound in both areas, SOOS. The general decrease in coverage with increas- internal processes within the ice, and rates of ice loss. ing latitude is associated with increasing remoteness as POLENET data in combination with data from the well as with the presence of sea ice. An important aspect Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) of the SOOS is emphasis on data archaeology, manage- satellite is leading to improved ice mass balance esti- ment, archiving, and access, as described in the SOOS mates to determine how the world’s largest ice sheets science plan (Rintoul et al., 2011). This is considered in Greenland and Antarctica are changing (Bromwich critical to understanding any new measurements. and Nicolas, 2010; Wu et al., 2010). Longer GPS time As initially planned, SOOS intends to make use series will also lead to better estimates of the history of of a full suite of remote sensing observations including ice mass fluctuations since the last glacial maximum. radar and laser altimetry, scatterometry, SAR, ocean color, and passive microwave observations. Observa- Sea Ice Observing Networks tions from ICESat were sufficient to verify the use of laser altimetry in obtaining estimates of both snow and Extensive observational networks carry an addi- sea ice thickness in the Southern Ocean; information tional benefit that unforeseen shortfalls in one can that has been largely lacking to date. sometimes be minimized by shifting some observa- Each element of the SOOS observing tools exists tional tasks to another network. This was demonstrated in some form and is ready for implementation now. The by the interactions between the U.S. Sea Ice Mass international effort in coordinating research programs Balance in the Antarctica (SIMBA) and the Australian in the Southern Ocean during IPY6 demonstrated the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem eXperiment (SIPEX) readiness and feasibility of a comprehensive, integrated programs. The SIMBA program was an international system of Southern Ocean observations. In 10 years, interdisciplinary study focused on sea ice processes the SOOS will likely have expanded to rely more integrated with oceanographic, meteorological, and heavily on autonomous sampling that includes floats, marine mammal components. During 2007, while gliders, satellites, moorings, and animal-borne sensors. operating in the Amundsen Sea, a ship fire resulted in A complete discussion and overview of the SOOS the loss of 3 weeks of a planned 2-month field season. strategy is given in Rintoul et al. (2011). However, this loss of data was avoided by transferring some aspects of the SIMBA program to the SIPEX program operating on the other side of the continent. Bipolar Observing Systems It also was possible to coordinate these changes with The Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET7) the NASA ICESat laser altimeter mission. The result- is a terrestrial, bipolar example of a new observational ing satellite-based data set, combined with concurrent network established during IPY. Prior to IPY there field observations, has helped refine algorithms for were very few continuous GPS receivers and seismic converting sea ice elevations into more accurate sea sensors in either the Antarctic or Greenland. The ice thickness. These results will contribute to the first establishment of POLENET provided a polar observ- analysis of Antarctic sea ice thickness distributions and ing system for geodesy and seismology in both regions change. Without previous coordination through IPY, (Figure 4.8) at a greater density than found at some such last-minute changes would have been more dif- ficult to implement. The experiences in setting up many of the IPY See the ICED-IPY website at http://www.iced.ac.uk/science/ 6 ipy.htm. observing networks provide lessons for planners of 7 http://www.polenet.org/.

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75 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.7 The Southern Ocean Ob- serving System (SOOS) is designed to provide multidisciplinary observations from one of the least well-observed p arts of the ocean. Two key com - ponents of SOOS are shown here: repeat hydrographic lines and Argo floats. Top panel: The locations of the proposed SOOS hydrographic lines. Bottom panel: The locations of South- ern Ocean Argo float observations made during IPY; the general decrease in coverage closer to the Antarctic continent is associated with increas- ing remoteness as well as with the presence of sea ice. SOURCE: Rintoul et al., 2011.

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76 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 related future programs. For example, sensor deploy- the biogeochemical aspects of polar observational pro- ment was a challenge. This will undoubtedly continue grams could and should have been expanded. Thus, it to be the case in the future even though environmental is important to formulate measurement needs well in conditions may be quite different. If current climate advance of the actual program so that the collection trends continue, areas of multiyear ice, favored as systems can be optimized for the specific research deployment sites, will be both smaller and increasingly needs. Involvement of early career scientists in pro- remote. Furthermore, although the increase in the ice- grams such as iAOOS that are expected to last for free areas during the late summer will favor the use of decades is critical—it may advance the careers of the ships to deploy buoys, subsequent ice formation during younger scientists, but it will certainly contribute to the winter may severely limit the usefulness of such the desired longevity of the observing program, which buoys. Also, providing a data set that was adequate for may well exceed the temporal involvement of the initial all possible users was particularly difficult, for example, developers. A C D B FIGURE 4.8 Maps showing POLENET networks before and after IPY. Continuously recording GPS and seismic sta- tions are shown prior to IPY (a, b) and deployed during the extended IPY period from 2006 to early 2010 (c, d). SOURCE: POLENET database; maps drafted by M. Berg and S. Konfal.

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77 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Icebreaker Support Capabilities essential task and it has just been announced that dur- ing the coming 2011-2012 austral summer another Performing scientific research in the polar regions Russian icebreaker, the Vladimir Ignatyuk, has been often requires research vessels capable of operating contracted for this task. Such arrangements, if possible, in fully and partially ice-covered seas. As such, ships are desirable in that they, by leveraging other country’s capable of breaking through ice are required for opera- marine investments, provide both nations with a return tions in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Icebreakers that is greater than would be obtained by working are required for scientific and supply missions in the alone. The difficulty is that it is impossible to guarantee Arctic, including operations in the Bering, Chukchi, that such arrangements can be made every year. If a and Beaufort Seas. In the Antarctic, heavy ice-breaking suitable replacement cannot be found, U.S. and New capability is required to clear a path through the thick Zealand operations in the McMurdo area and in East continuous first-year (FY ) sea ice in McMurdo Sound Antarctica in general will have to be severely curtailed, to allow cargo ships to carry out the annual resupply if not completely cancelled. of the U.S. and New Zealand bases at McMurdo. This In the Arctic, the Healy will continue to operate, resupply is essential to the operation of these stations and the Sikuliaq, with less icebreaking capabilities than and the U.S. station located at the South Pole. those of the Healy, is under construction. At 261 feet The current status of U.S. ships with icebreaking and 5,750 HP, the Sikuliaq’s winter in-ice operations capabilities is uncertain. The USCG icebreaker Polar will probably be limited to the Bering Sea, and its Sea is scheduled to be decommissioned in 2011. Its sis- summer operational area will likely include both the ter ship, the Polar Star, is now over 30 years old and has Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. It should prove to be an been undergoing repairs designed to extend its service effective operational platform but it is not designed for life for 5 to 7 years. The two ships are unique in that deep extended operations into the Arctic Basin. The they have the capability of increasing their horsepower Healy may prove capable of winter operations in the from 16,000 to 60,000 by activating an additional gas main Arctic Basin, but confidence in this capability turbine system, which allows them to complete the awaits further field tests. McMurdo break-in. In the Antarctic, as the Palmer approaches the end The two other U.S.-owned ice-capable vessels in of its operational life, the U.S. Antarctic Research Pro- current use are the USCG Healy and the NSF char- gram will essentially be without icebreaking capability. tered RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer. The Healy, although In particular, it will lack the capability of operating in the largest ship in the history of the Coast Guard, has the Southern Ocean during the winter and of break- proven to have great difficulty maneuvering in thick ing out the U.S. Base at McMurdo Sound during the continuous FY ice; therefore its operations are cur- summer, an operation essential to base resupply. If U.S. rently limited to the Arctic where it has proven to be operations are to continue in the Antarctic, the lengthy an effective asset for operations in the Bering, Chukchi, design and construction time required to produce an and Beaufort Seas. The Palmer, operated on contract operational icebreaker requires that the decision to for the NSF, was designed for Antarctic operations initiate development of a replacement ship should be and has proven to be capable of operations in FY made soon. Inherent in the design should be two pri- Antarctic pack ice, but its ice-breaking capabilities mary capabilities. This replacement vessel needs to be are less than required for the annual break-in for the capable of operating in thick, continuous FY ice and McMurdo Sound. The Palmer entered service in 1992 should have a design that supports multidisciplinary and has been in essentially continuous operation for 19 research. years. As a result, it will undoubtedly require enhanced maintenance during its remaining operational lifetime. NEW OBSERVATIONS FROM During IPY, NSF was able to make arrangements SPECIFIC TOOLS to have the Swedish icebreaker Oden break out the channel to McMurdo Sound. In the past, Russian Several recently developed research tools were icebreakers have also been chartered to carry out this used during IPY. Given the long lead time required to

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78 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean through the plan, secure funding, and develop new tools, work on Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Davis Strait into the all of these research tools began well before IPY and Labrador Sea. The amount of freshwater entering the in some cases even before IPY planning began. While Labrador Sea determines the formation of dense water IPY may not have directly benefited the initial stages in this region. Thus, understanding the variability in of tool development, the existence of a large, multi- freshwater supply is critical to understanding the effect disciplinary, international project such as IPY provided of climate change on the larger-scale ocean thermoha- the opportunity to deploy and test new tools as parts line circulation. The SeaGliders were one of the many of large observing networks. Some examples of such instruments included in the Arctic Observing Network innovative tools that provided a new perspective on the (AON). The SeaGlider represented an advance over polar system are highlighted below. other autonomous underwater vehicles in that it does not use propulsion to move through the water, can SeaGliders operate on its own for several months, and can operate effectively in ice-covered regions. Unlike ARGO floats, Over the past 25 years, much has been learned it can maneuver in vertical and horizontal space. At about the spatial and temporal variability of the physi- specified intervals it sends data and its GPS position via cal, chemical, and biological distributions and pro- the iridium satellite to a computer base station, allow- cesses in the ocean, and it is now known that changes ing almost real-time analysis of the data. The glider in oceanic processes occur over a variety of space and can then receive new instructions from the operator at time scales. In high-latitude systems, seasonal cycles in the base station about what to target next (position), irradiance, wind fields, and sea ice concentration and how deep it should go, and its data sampling frequency. extent are important in determining ocean stratifica- IPY showed that SeaGliders are viable tools for tion, upper ocean heating, and biological productivity. measuring remote regions at space and time scales that However, short-term physical variations such as event- are relevant to the oceanographic processes that are of scale mixing also play a dominant role in controlling concern for climate change. Subsequent to IPY, Sea- the magnitude of these processes as well as their timing Gliders had been deployed successfully in other high- and duration. These events are likely quite common in latitude regions, such as the Ross Sea. This instrumen- high-latitude systems, but are rarely sampled, and as tation is rapidly gaining acceptance and is becoming such their importance to seasonal and annual cycles part of multidisciplinary oceanographic programs. remains poorly quantified (see the section on Sea Ice in Chapter 3). One reason such events are rarely sampled is that Animal-Borne Ocean Sensors traditional ship-based sampling does not often resolve The use of animal-borne conductivity-tempera- processes on either the mesoscale (i.e., eddies, fronts, ture-depth satellite relay data loggers (CTD-SRDL) and currents), or seasonal time scales. To adequately tags to study habitat and behavior was the core theme resolve these sampling needs, new technologies were of the IPY MEOP (Marine Mammals as Explorers of needed. Gliders, autonomous vehicles that can sample the Ocean Pole to Pole) program. This international a limited suite of variables for long periods of time, rep- effort deployed tags in large numbers on grey and resented one such new technology. Gliders are capable hooded seals in the Canadian and Norwegian Arctic of extended missions (several months), are durable, and and on crabeater, elephant, and Weddell seals in the carry sensors that provide coincident measurements of Southern Ocean (Figure 3.13). The deployment of 85 temperature, salinity, optics, fluorescence, and trans- CTD-SRDLs on southern elephant seals as part of missometry, which provide high-resolution space and the international Southern Elephant Seals as Oceano- time representations of environmental and biological graphic Sensors (SEAOS) provided a circumpolar conditions. assessment of the behavior of southern elephant seals During IPY, SeaGliders (Figure 4.9), developed as well as a synoptic view of the oceanography of the by U.S. scientists, were deployed off western Green- Southern Ocean (Biuw et al., 2007). land. These gliders provided 6-month time series of

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79 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.9 Photograph of SeaGlider and schematic of SeaGlider operation and com- munication. SOURCE: Applied Physics Labo- ratory, University of Washington.

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80 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 Satellite-linked dive recorders that sample the tem- Similar to SeaGliders, UAS provide a tool that allows perature and/or salinity while simultaneously recording for repeat monitoring of atmospheric and surface state information on the diving patterns of the seals (Biuw in remote or difficult-to-reach locations and provide et al., 2007) offer a significant advantage over remotely observations on spatial and temporal scales that allows sensed data in that they acquire oceanographic-quality f or investigation of mesoscale features not often data at a scale and resolution that matches the animals’ observed with other observing systems. Deployment behavior. An equally important advantage is that these of UAS in the polar regions faces difficulties because tags provide oceanographic data that can contribute to of the harsh climatic conditions but avoids logistical a better understanding of physical oceanography, espe- difficulties associated with flight clearances needed in cially in areas where traditional shipboard and Argo more populous mid-latitude locations. float coverage is limited or absent, such as the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Automatic Weather Stations In the Southern Ocean, the 2 years of IPY-MEOP sensor deployments resulted in 68,000 CTD profiles The development and deployment of reliable collected by 166 seals. These data were from mostly automatic weather stations (AWS), starting in the data-sparse regions, and a large proportion was from early 1980s, helped fill significant gaps in surface high-latitude regions in winter in areas with 80 percent weather observations in the polar regions. Extensive or more sea ice coverage. The MEOP program pro- AWS networks in the Antarctic (Figure 4.11) and vided comprehensive, synoptic coverage that allowed Greenland were in place during IPY. Observations investigation of factors determining habitat selection from more than 50 AWS systems are used for opera- and use by important polar marine mammal species. tional weather forecasting and thus contribute to many The combination of oceanography and marine mam- field-based polar research activities by facilitating more mal ecology in MEOP has significantly advanced accurate forecasts. The data from these networks are readily available10 and are used for a wide range of understanding of how top predators use their environ- ment as well as providing high-resolution hydrographic research including atmospheric science and glaciology. measurements that can be used to advance understand- The Antarctic continent AWS network is maintained ing of climate processes (e.g., Costa et al., 2008). The through a 12-nation international effort. IPY effort provided the large-scale verification of the validity of “animals as oceanographers.” Paleoclimate Tools Climate change over the last century has been dra- Unmanned Aerial Systems matic and well documented (IPCC, 2007b), but is best Early deployment of Unmanned Aerial Systems evaluated in the context of natural climate variability. (UAS) in polar regions began in the late 1990s with W hile changes of the last few decades can be weighed flights conducted from Barrow, Alaska. using Aero- in the short term against instrumental and historical sonde UAS. The deployment and use of UAS for data and observations, a better understanding of the polar scientific research expanded during IPY through character and pacing of natural Earth system variabil- projects such as the U.S.-Norway Traverse project,8 the ity can only be assessed through paleoclimate studies. Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS9), L ong continuous geologic records contained in ice and the NASA-funded Characterization of Arctic Sea cores and sediment cores from both marine and lacus- Ice Experiment (CASIE), which took place on Sval- trine depositional systems at the poles provide informa- bard in July 2009. This project used the NASA Sensor tion about natural variability on a variety of time scales. Integrated Environmental Remote Research Aircraft The data from these cores suggest forcing mechanisms (SIERRA) UAS (Figure 4.10) to observe sea ice rough- and feedbacks at work in global and regional systems. ness and sea ice breakup in high northern latitudes. Modeling linked with the geologic record provides 8 http://traverse.npolar.no/. 9 10 https://cms.cresis.ku.edu/. http://amrc.ssec.wisc.edu/.

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81 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.10 NASA SIERRA U AS on the runway at N y Alesund, Svalbard. SOURCE: Julie Brigham- Grette, University of Mas- sachusetts, Amherst. further information about the sensitivity of regional platform that was weather-protected by insulated walls systems to change caused by human activities. and a custom made tent atop a 20-m-high derrick. The IPY provided the impetus for a number of inter- system was permanently imported into Russia, where it national programs and initiatives aimed at recovering is now available as a research tool for scientific drilling exceptionally long, high-resolution geologic records projects at no cost to the science community until 2014. of change in the high latitudes (see Chapter 3 on (Results from this project are described in Chapter 3 in Discoveries). Because of the exceptional logistical and the section on Evidence of Past Climate Change over technical challenges in obtaining these records, new Geologic Time Scales). instrumentation and geological drilling systems were In Antarctica, the new multinational Antarctic designed for the benefit of the polar science com- Drilling Program (ANDRILL) was launched on the munity. These systems provide a benchmark for IPY McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) in austral summer of 2006 that celebrates collaborations as well as innovation, as to 2007 by overcoming similar logistic challenges. illustrated by the following examples. Using a custom-built drilling system consisting of Drilling successfully at Lake El’gygytgyn (Lake E) a diamond drill rig and jack-up platform, the first in remote northeastern Russia represented a massive ANDRILL drilling system operated effectively atop an logistical and political undertaking (Melles et al., 2011; 85-m-thick portion of the ice shelf that moved laterally Figure 4.12). Multiple shipping containers originating and was subject to tides and poorly studied subshelf at various institutions around the world were trans- currents (Figure 4.13). The MIS project successfully ported by ship, rail, truck, and eventually bulldozer. recovered 1,285 m of sediment, documenting for the Drilling platform preparation required that the lake ice first time the complex interplay among the WAIS, be artificially thickened to about 2.3 m to support the EAIS, and the Southern Ocean (Naish et al., 2009). 100-ton weight of safe operations. Cores were taken Refined technology and geological drilling tech- using a newly designed hydraulic/rotary system con- niques in both polar regions allowed for the recovery sisting of a diamond coring rig positioned on a mobile of these unparalleled records, which will catapult the

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82 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 conductivity measurements of the ice cores,11 which understanding of high-latitude climate evolution over millions of years. allows scientists to focus on specific core sections, In parallel with geologic drilling, ice core drill- maximizing the scientific information per unit cost. ing for paleoenvironmental records (Figure 4.14) also The WAIS Divide project also led to the development made a number of milestones for IPY. The ongoing of ultramodern laboratory equipment for the continu- recovery of a unique 100,000+-year high-temporal ous stable isotope analysis (oxygen and hydrogen) of resolution record from the interior of West Antarctica recovered ice (Gupta et al., 2009) and carbon dioxide (the first attempted there since the Byrd core during measurements of the “fossil air” enclosed in compressed IGY ) required the development of the DISC (Deep air bubbles in the ice. Ice Sheet Coring) Drill by the U.S. Ice Drilling Design These new technologies were born of longstand- and Operations (IDDO) group at the University of ing international and science-industry collaborations. Wisconsin, Madison, a drill with unprecedented abil- Ice coring science had its origins in the IGY era, when ity to drill diagonally from selected depths deep in the the very first ice core was drilled in Greenland by the ice sheet to retrieve additional, replicate ice cores from U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering scientifically interesting depths ( Johnson et al., 2007; Lab. Even though the science and technology are rela- Mason et al., 2007; Mortensen et al., 2007; Shturmakov tively young, international sharing of drill designs and et al., 2007). Moreover, the project led to the develop- engineering expertise is a hallmark of the ice coring ment of a new field-based system to take multitrack community (Langway, 2008). The International Part- nerships for Ice Coring Science,12 one of the IPY legacy organizations, has a group of international drilling engineers who periodically meet to share knowledge and experience about ice core drilling. MODELS AND REANALYSES Leading up to and during IPY, polar regional modeling began to focus on system modeling. A series of international workshops from 2007 through 2009 culminated in the publication of A Science Plan for Regional Arctic System Modeling (Roberts et al., 2010) that highlighted the needs for regional Arctic system modeling (ASM) (Figure 4.15). Another focus of polar modeling during IPY was the development of the Arc- tic System Reanalysis (ASR) (Bromwich et al., 2010). Regional models for the polar regions, including Polar WRF,13 have seen increased development in the years since IPY. Both ASM and ASR activities provided an oppor- tunity for synergies between observational and mod- eling communities. The polar system focus of these modeling efforts aligns closely with the system focus of IPY. Observations collected as part of IPY provide validation for these modeling efforts and in the case 11 Kendrick Taylor, Desert Research Institute, personal com- FIGURE 4.11 John Cassano working on an automatic weather munication, 2011. station. AWS networks in place during IPY helped fill gaps in 12 http://www.pages-igbp.org/ipics/. surface weather observations. SOURCE: John Cassano, Univer- 13 http://polarmet.osu.edu/PolarMet/pwrf.html. sity of Colorado Boulder.

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83 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.12 The U.S.-Russia-German-Austrian Lake El’gygytgyn Scientific Drilling program re- covered the first continuous record of past climate change reaching back to 3.6 million years. Im- ages show the field site and the Lake El’gygytgyn Science Party. Lower left map shows the location of the field site. SOURCES: Lake El’gygytgyn Sci- ence Party; map: Brigham-Grette et al., 2011.

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84 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 FIGURE 4.13 Schematic of the ANDRILL-MIS drill core. SOURC- ES: left, Chicago Tribune; right: ANDRILL Science Management Office, http://www.andrill.org. of the ASR provided data to constrain the reanalysis. Results from modeling efforts such as this can highlight regions of interest for future observational efforts and can represent in a physically consistent way processes acting on small spatial and temporal scales which until recently have been poorly sampled. O verall, IPY facilitated closer integration between the observational and modeling communities. Data assimilative models provided inputs used to guide observation and deployment activities and these in turn provided data for the models. This integration FIGURE 4.14 A 1-m-long section of ice core from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Ice Core; section contains a dark ash layer. SOURCE: Heidi Roop.

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85 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 4.15 Evolution of regional arctic models. Geophysical ocean-sea ice-atmosphere-terrestrial components have progressively been coupled during the past two decades, while other components have been studied as stand-alone systems. The proposed Arctic System Modeling program will bring a greater understanding of interconnectivity within the Arctic by fostering coupling of biogeo- chemistry and human dimensions components. SOURCE: Roberts et al., 2010. represented a positive interaction and as such provides real time, available “fully, freely, openly, and on the short- an important legacy from IPY. est feasible time scale.” An emphasis on data availability, sharing, and thus management, could have placed IPY on the forefront of efforts to make fundamental advances DATA MANAGEMENT in this area. However, strategic differences in Arctic and The IPY framework report underscored the cen- Antarctic data management and the conduct of science tral role of data by stating “In fifty years time the data investigation within new interdisciplinary structures all resulting from IPY 2007-2008 may be seen as the most challenged data management during IPY. There were important single outcome of the programme” (Rapley no internationally coordinated IPY planning efforts and Bell, 2004). Rapid changes in the polar regions make to engage funding sources for planning data archiving, the need to share data more acute because the knowledge which created an additional funding problem for post- being urgently sought to inform decisions is well beyond IPY international archiving. Moreover, during the the means of single investigators, projects, or even single buildup to IPY, the International Council for Science’s countries. While no data management policy was put in (ICSU’s) assessment of the world data centers (many place before IPY project proposals were submitted to the of which were established during the IGY ) questioned Joint Committee, the Joint Committee later stressed the their viability and collaboration, recommending a major importance of data sharing and management by institut- overhaul of ICSU data structures (ICSU, 2004). Thus, ing a data policy for IPY that emphasized the need to ICSU viewed IPY as an opportunity to make critically make IPY data, including operational data delivered in needed advances in data management.

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86 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 IPY ’s scientific success depended on handling contributions from the American Geophysical Union data in ways that enabled researchers to access and use and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. various data sources and in novel ways. The IPY Joint IPYDIS16 established a global partnership of data Committee addressed the needs of improved data man- centers, archives, and networks to ensure proper stew- agement by forming a Data Policy and Management ardship of IPY and related data. The substantial U.S. Subcommittee14 in late 2005 whose task included the funding support of IPYDIS demonstrates the U.S. com- generation of an IPY Data Policy and Strategy. This mitment to sound data management for internationally policy and strategy expressed the importance of data collaborative science now and into the future. NSIDC sharing and publication, interoperability across systems coordinated IPYDIS. It was guided by the IPY policy through the establishments and adherence to data set by the IPY Data Policy and Management Subcom- standards, sustainable preservation and stewardship mittee and requested updated data-related information of diverse data, and coordinated governance to ensure from all IPY projects as those projects evolved. The access for all researchers. All IPY projects pledged to website17 has instructions to guide researchers submit- honor this policy—a remarkably universal expression ting metadata to either nationally designated IPY data of recognition of the important role data played in centers or to the more general GCMD-IPY portal current and future polar research. This subcommittee where data are organized into 14 disciplinary categories. also defined an IPY metadata profile consistent with IPYDIS also guided users interested in accessing data what was being used at several polar data centers and to specific sites either with direct links or through a the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). It prototype search interface called Discovery, Access, and also requested national IPY organizations to name a Delivery of Data for IPY (DADDI18). DADDI is pres- data coordinator responsible for promoting the IPY ently limited to Arctic coastal data. Under the definition data standards in their respective countries. To date, of IPY data established by the IPY Data Subcommittee, 16 countries have identified a data coordinator; in the 1,400 data sets resulting from IPY have been cata- United States this responsibility is with the National logued in the GCMD (Parsons et al., 2011). Also part Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). of IPYDIS, the International Polar Year Publications As a result of IPY, several data centers have estab- Database (IPYPD) was created by the Arctic Science lished pilot projects to exchange metadata records using and Technology Information System (ASTIS), the the IPY profile and the Open Archives Initiative Pro- Cold Regions Bibliography Project (CRBP), the Scott tocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAIPMH). Metadata Polar Research Institute (SPRI) Library, the Discovery from centers in Canada, Norway, Sweden, the United and Access of Historic Literature of the IPYs (DAHLI) Kingdom, and the United States are directly provided to project, and the National Information Services Corpo- the GCMD. With support from the NSF, an IPY Data ration (NISC). It is intended to serve as a database for and Information System (IPYDIS) was established in all publications related to IPY. collaboration with the Electronic Geophysical Year In addition to the more general repository effort (eGY15). The eGY was an independent effort focused of IPYDIS, many large IPY projects constructed their on making past, present and future geophysical data own data portals, for example, the Antarctic Drilling rapidly, conveniently and openly available. It was sup- Project, the Arctic Observing Network, the Circum- ported internationally by the International Association polar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme, the Polar of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy and the International Earth Observing Network, and the Scientific Com- Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, while US-based mittee on Antarctic Research Marine Biodiversity support was provided by NASA, NSF, the U.S. Geo- Information Network. These additional portals provide logical Survey, and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and access to data not yet available through GCMD, but do Space Physics, University of Colorado, with in-kind demonstrate timely release of data. Other data collected 16 http://www.ipydis.org/. 14 17 http://classic.ipy.org/international/joint-committee/data-man- h ttp://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/KeywordSearch/Home.do?Portal agement.htm. =ipy&MetadataType=0. 15 http://egy.org/index.php. 18 http://www.nsidc.org/daddi/.

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87 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE during IPY by sensors designed and operated with a to by many and continues to enable discovery-driven mission larger than polar-only were naturally added to research. However, the breadth of IPY social science existing data repositories already designed specifically for projects highlighted that when human subjects are those sensors. An example of this category is the wealth involved, other considerations related to data descrip- of satellite data of the polar regions orchestrated by the tion and availability need to be considered, lest the IPY Space Task Group that was established for the pur- effectiveness or accuracy of the research be compro- pose of coordinating space agency planning, processing, mised. In social science, trust needs to precede data and archiving of the IPY Earth Observation legacy data acquisition; the building of relationships with local set. Other sources of data include repositories for polar residents depends on how collected information will materials and samples such as the U.S. National Ice Core be used and distributed. This is not new to social Laboratory,19 the U.S. Polar Rock Repository,20 the Ant- scientists, but less familiar to physical scientists who, arctic Marine Geology Research Facility,21 and the U.S. through IPY, sought to bridge the gap between social National Lacustrine Core Facility.22 The collections are and physical sciences. On the other hand, the integra- available for a wide range of scientific research including tion of physical science research goals into projects that current and future studies. included local residents often provided a demonstrable The great diversity of IPY data resulted in some and tangible benefit to the residents, building trust and barriers to its use, some causes of which included data reinforcing the notions that the research was synergistic unfamiliar to scientists outside the originating discipline, and that data sharing is, in fact, an equitable enterprise. data that did not fit into the organizing structure of The step-change increase in understanding polar the data center, or the absence of tools either to work systems attempted by IPY highlighted the central with data or to even locate relevant data. In some cases role that data and its management play in achieving these barriers were overcome by the investigators them- that goal. There have been challenges in sharing and selves; for example, for the IPY project “Antarctic Snow archiving data (Carlson, 2011), and the IPY experience Accumulation and Ice Discharge (ASAID),” custom- illustrated that data handling is most successful when ized software code as well as formal documentation nations commit program resources to each phase of describing its use was supplied to NSIDC. Often, the the data’s life (e.g., collection, reduction, distribution, data center is expected to develop and improve tools so and archiving). Experts in data management are criti- that investigators submitting data (or metadata) find it cal members of any team attempting internationally easy to describe and transfer their data and investigators coordinated science on the scale of IPY. seeking data can efficiently search for relevant data sets. The contrasts between the Arctic and the Antarctic No grand solutions were achieved during IPY, but the reflect onto the differences in how data are managed, net result of IPY’s focus on data, data sharing, and data increasing the difficulty of bipolar research. There management prompted many constructive steps by data are geopolitical and social dimensions in the Arctic centers and investigators alike that have improved data that complicate data management and accessibility. accessibility. Continued efforts in this arena are essential. National interests are stronger, cultural and health issues abound, and each is changing rapidly as the Arc- tic physical environment changes. The International Lessons and Legacies in Data Management Arctic Science Committee (IASC) and SCAR are The IPY Joint Committee report stated that “the the natural organizations to coordinate data manage- IPY policy of general openness built from existing ment in the two poles, but presently they do not have policies appears to be an initial success” (Parsons et a consistent data policy. The IPY data subcommittee al., 2011). The principle that as much data as possible suggested a new CODATA Task Group to help plan a be fully available in the public domain was adhered transition from IPYDIS to relevant international data structures and organizations and also recommended that IASC and SCAR work with this task group to 19 http://nicl.usgs.gov/. create a single polar data policy and associated data 20 http://bprc.osu.edu/rr/. 21 http://www.arf.fsu.edu/. management procedures and structures. 22 http://lrc.geo.umn.edu/laccore/.

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88 LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 The effort exerted during IPY toward network- frequently cross national boundaries. As a result, to ing various data centers should continue and expand adequately observe the large-scale systems interact- into the future. Today, the rapid exchange of vast data ing, international cooperation is frequently a necessity, volumes allows a distributed data center, and IPY used requiring significant planning. Observation networks this to advantage in linking data sets hosted in widely such as SAON, iAOOS, and SOOS developed and/ separate data centers to form much larger virtual data or expanded during IPY. IPY put in place the plan- centers (also the eGY concept). This trend will con- ning and infrastructure needed to develop long-term tinue, but the partnerships between data centers need to sustained measurement systems for the Arctic and Ant- be more than electronic links. To fully serve the needs arctic. The structure of these networks will continue of scientists strong in a single discipline but interested to evolve as the data are analyzed and needs change. in multiple disciplines, the form and format of the However, sustaining these systems in the long term data sets need to be modified to enable an increased will continue to present a challenge to the research level of interdisciplinary research. This will require community. collaborative planning on the part of data managers IPY saw numerous examples of first-time deploy- and scientists. It may not require changing the actual ments of new tools for observing the polar climate, form of the data, but rather provision of interface tools ecosystems, and beyond; examples include SeaGliders, that allow a data set to be understood by a variety of unmanned aerial systems, and animal-borne ocean sen- disciplinary experts. sors. IPY also saw the use of existing tools in new ways Other considerations include institutional require- and in new places. These new tools allowed for a more ments for data release. Parsons et al. (2011) expressed comprehensive observation of the poles than ever before. the view that “the experience in IPY… has shown that The use of remotely controlled autonomous observing most effective enforcement mechanism is through systems became increasingly common, while the cost funding mechanisms that either withhold some fund- and complexity of these systems often made multia- ing or reduce the ability of scientists to obtain future gency and/or international cooperation necessary. This funding opportunities if they do not adhere to the was never more apparent than with satellite systems. data policy.” This is a familiar condition in the United IPY cannot claim credit for the generation of any new States, where the NSF, which funds much of the polar satellite missions, but it did succeed in an unprecedented research, imposes just such a requirement on funded set of coordinated observation from spaceborne sensors investigators. In return for data shared by investigators operated by multiple national space agencies. Through and data managed by data centers, it is very important the IPY’s Space Task Group, this Polar Snapshot was that users of the data provide proper and complete so successful that the group has remained and continues acknowledgment and credit these data in their sub- to cooperate with national space agencies for observa- sequent use. Guidance for proper citation supplied by tions intended to maintain an effective space-based data centers is becoming more common. For example, monitoring of the polar regions to help overcome what with data sets archived in the National Snow and Ice is a decreasing observational capability as many satellite Data Center, there is a sentence provided that explicitly systems age and fail. states how the data and its archive should be referenced O bservations are of little value if they are not in documents that make use of the data. Understand- available to researchers. However, the challenges to ing the data policies of all government funding entities availability multiply as the data volumes increase and involved is an important component for planning future the needs of interdisciplinary research extend to data of international science endeavors like IPY. unfamiliar form and content. A number of existing data centers in the United States stepped up to this chal- lenge, making data management expertise available to CONCLUSIONS IPY projects and following through with mechanisms The polar regions have always presented great to receive, organize, store, and make available metadata logistical challenges because the terrain is vast, access of all types that would assist researchers in locating data can be difficult and expensive, the working condi- relevant to a wide range of scientific pursuits. tions are invariably difficult, and the areas of interest