Lessons and Legacies of
INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR
2007-2008

Committee on the Lessons and Legacies of International Polar Year 2007-2008

Polar Research Board

Division of Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Lessons and Legacies of INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 Committee on the Lessons and Legacies of International Polar Year 2007-2008 Polar Research Board Division of Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under award number ANT-1026273. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agency or any of its sub agencies. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25203-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25203-2 Cover image by Max, age 5, Seattle, WA. Copies of this report are available from the program office: Polar Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3479 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE LESSONS AND LEGACIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 JULIE BRIGHAM-GRETTE (Co-Chair), University of Massachusetts, Amherst ROBERT A. BINDSCHADLER (Co-Chair), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD MARY R. ALBERT, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH JOHN J. CASSANO, University of Colorado, Boulder LARRY D. HINZMAN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA IGOR KRUPNIK, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC VERA KINGEEKUK METCALF, U.S. Arctic Research Commission/Eskimo Walrus Commission, Nome, AK STEPHANIE PFIRMAN, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY CHRIS RAPLEY, University College London, UK LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY THOMAS N. TAYLOR,* University of Kansas, Lawrence WILFORD F. WEEKS, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (Emeritus), Portland, OR NRC Staff MARTHA MCCONNELL, Program Officer until September 2011 EDWARD DUNLEA, Senior Program Officer LAUREN BROWN, Research Associate SHELLY FREELAND, Senior Program Assistant * Resigned during the study process. v

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POLAR RESEARCH BOARD JAMES W. C. WHITE (Chair), University of Colorado, Boulder SRIDHAR ANANDAKRISHNAN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JULIE BRIGHAM-GRETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst DAVID H. BROMWICH, Ohio State University, Columbus JENNIFER A. FRANCIS, Rutgers University, Marion, MA EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA BERNICE M. JOSEPH, University of Alaska, Fairbanks AMY LAUREN LOVECRAFT, University of Alaska, Fairbanks MOLLY E. McCAMMON, Alaska Ocean Observing System, Anchorage ELLEN S. MOSLEY-THOMPSON, Ohio State University, Columbus GEORGE B. NEWTON, QinetiQ North America and U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Marstons Mills, MA CARYN REA, ConocoPhillips, Anchorage, AK VLADIMIR E. ROMANOVSKY, University of Alaska, Fairbanks GAIUS (GUS) R. SHAVER, The Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA ALLAN T. WEATHERWAX, Siena College, Loudonville, NY Ex-Officio JACQUELINE M. GREBMEIER, University of Maryland, Solomons MAHLON (CHUCK) C. KENNICUTT II, Texas A&M University, College Station TERRY WILSON, Ohio State University, Columbus NRC Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Board Director LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer EDWARD DUNLEA, Senior Program Officer LAUREN BROWN, Research Associate RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator GRAIG MANSFIELD, Financial Associate AMANDA PURCELL, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Preface D espite their location, tucked away at the developed into a worldwide, community-based effort. f ringes of maps of our planet, the polar Central to this success was an expanding Internet regions are central to the global system. Sci- that permitted the rapid growth of a community; the entists of the International Geophysical Year in 1957 transmission of ideas, maps, and data; the matching of could not have imagined the extent to which humanity collaborators; and the evolution of innovative themes. has changed the face of our planet in the intervening The Internet also made it possible for scientists to 50 years. Record lows in the extent of Arctic summer engage the public personally and enter thousands of sea ice, rapid changes in the Greenland ice sheet, the classrooms as never before, often directly from remote disintegration of gigantic ice shelves around the Ant- field sites, as one part of the larger IPY education and arctic, ocean acidification, and reorganization of polar outreach effort. IPY also celebrated the human spirit of ecosystems, among other changes, are reshaping the discovery, bridging circumarctic indigenous knowledge world, which is now home to over 7 billion people.1 with shared scientific endeavors while also addressing W hat we primarily celebrate in this International challenging societal concerns. Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY ) are the scientific pursuits At its core, IPY was a large, coordinated suite that illuminate our understanding of the high latitudes of polar observations, research, and analysis. It also and the role that they play in a rapidly evolving world. achieved an expanding knowledge base of diverse and Reaching across the scientific spectrum, from the first enthusiastic men and women prepared to sustain and high-resolution images of whole mountain ranges build on the legacies of previous polar science. Many buried beneath Antarctica to the asymmetric auroras dedicated people deserve thanks for their efforts in of our austral and boreal atmosphere, IPY 2007-2008 this process. IPY would not have happened but for the focused attention on the Earth as a complex integrated dedication and efforts of the thousands of participating system. New technologies, new tools, and networked scientists and researchers. Many more technicians and data acquisition structures were developed, setting engineers assisted science teams with equipment and new benchmarks for observing and understanding logistics in challenging environments. polar systems. Our understanding of the risks and This report was prepared to capture the major uncertainties of global change were enhanced through successes of this effort and to summarize what was groundbreaking modeling studies of the geologic past. learned. The committee heard from many people in Starting from the efforts of a small number of the polar science community, and we thank everyone enthusiasts and agencies, and building on existing for their thoughts and perceptions (see Acknowledg- multinational collaborations and science programs, IPY ments section). On behalf of the entire study team, we also thank the National Science Foundation’s Office of Polar Programs for their support of IPY and this 1 http://www.census.gov/. vii

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viii PREFACE report, and for providing documentation and informa- management of our planet’s resources at all latitudes. tive details. Finally, this report would not have been W hen another IPY is needed in the future, we hope possible without the dedication and hard work of the the lessons from this one can serve as a guide. National Research Council staff: Martha McConnell, Shelly Freeland, Lauren Brown, Edward Dunlea, and Julie Brigham-Grette, Chris Elfring. University of Massachusetts, Amherst The world will continue to change, and processes Robert Bindschadler, of polar amplification will continue the rapid transfor- NASA Goddard Space Center mation of the high latitudes in the coming decades. Co-Chairs Our hope is that the legacies of IPY will help societ- Committee on the Lessons and Legacies ies understand those changes and put knowledge into of International Polar Year 2007-2008 action, forging new frontiers in the protection and

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Acknowledgments T Although the reviewers listed above have provided his report has been reviewed in draft form by constructive comments and suggestions, they were not individuals chosen for their diverse perspec- asked to endorse the report’s conclusions or recommen- tives and technical expertise, in accordance dations, nor did they see the final draft of the report with procedures approved by the National Research before its release. The review of this report was overseen Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The by Margo H. Edwards, University of Hawaii at Manoa. purpose of this independent review is to provide candid Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for mak- and critical comments that will assist the institution in ing certain that an independent examination of this making its published report as sound as possible and to report was carried out in accordance with institutional ensure that the report meets institutional standards for procedures and that all review comments were carefully objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study considered. Responsibility for the final content of this charge. The review comments and draft manuscript report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the remain confidential to protect the integrity of the institution. deliberative process. We wish to thank the following In addition, the committee would like to thank individuals for their review of this report: in particular for their contributions during the study Robin Bell, Columbia University, Palisades, NY process: Cecilia Bitz, University of Washington, Seattle Richard Boone, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Waleed Abdalati, National Aeronautics and Space David Carlson, IPY International Programme Administration, Washington, DC Richard Alley, Pennsylvania State University, Office, Boulder, CO Shari Gearheard, National Snow and Ice Data University Park Jenny Baeseman, Association of Polar Early Career Center, Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada Guy Guthridge, National Science Foundation Scientists, Tromsø, Norway Robin Bell, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (Retired), Arlington, VA Amy Lovecraft, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Columbia University, New York, NY Mark Parsons, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Jody Deming, University of Washington, Seattle Hajo Eicken, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Boulder, CO Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Jackie Grebmeier, University of Maryland, College Park La Jolla, CA ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Geoffrey Haines Styles, POLAR-PALOOZA/P2K, Carthage Smith, International Council for Science, New York, NY Paris, France Fae Korsmo, National Science Foundation, Mead Treadwell, Lt. Governor of Alaska, Juneau Washington, DC Don Perovich, ERDC-CRREL, Hanover, NH The committee would also like to thank the Ted Scambos, NSIDC, Boulder, CO numerous scientists spoken to throughout the study Peter Schlosser, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, process, in particular all of the questionnaire respon- Columbia University, New York, NY dents who provided their thoughts on the lessons and legacies from IPY.

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xi Southern Ocean Dr ak Larsen B eP ice shelf ass age Wilkins ice shelf Gamburtsev South Belling Shausen Sea Mountains Pole Pine Island Glacier ice shelf Ross ice shelf McMurdo Amundsen Sea Ross Sea Map of Locations in the Antarctic Described in the Report

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xii Lake El’gygytgyn Bering Sea Chukotka, Chukchi Sea Russia Gambell, AK East Kivalina, AK Siberian Sea Newtok, AK Seward Peninsula, AK Sishmaref, AK Kolyma Togiak, AK River Shaktoolik, AK Republic of Sakha, Russia Laptev Barrow, AK Sea Khanty-Mansyisk, Russia Anchorage, AK Bering North Strait Fairbanks, AK Pole Beaufort Sea Kara Sea Arctic Barents Sea Ocean Kautokeino, Norway Clyde River, Fram Strait Canada Norwegian Igloolik, Canada Sea Iqaluit, Canada Summit, Greenland Labrador Davis Strait Sea Map of Locations in the Arctic Described in the Report

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 2 THE HUMAN ELEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007-2008 15 3 SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES AND DISCOVERIES 27 4 SCIENTIFIC TOOLS AND INFRASTRUCTURE 67 5 KNOWLEDGE TO ACTION 89 6 REFLECTIONS 105 REFERENCES 111 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 125 B Workshop Agenda 127 C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 131 D Acronym List 135 xiii

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