•   Regulatory Harmonization (Session I): Animal research regulations in the United States and the European Union are more similar than different. International collaborations are helping to influence new regulations, raise standards in emerging regions (e.g., Asia, South America), and contribute to global harmonization.

•   Administrative Burden (Sessions I and III): Regulatory systems have a variety of costs, including financial costs, the costs of increased oversight for regulators, and the costs of lost research time for scientists. Appropriate measures of the success of animal welfare regulations can be useful because it is unclear whether increased costs and burdens result in improved animal welfare.

•   Legal Trends (Session II): The effect of increased attention on animal rights laws is unclear. Freedom of Information requests and state sunshine laws are used in the United States to allow the public to access detailed information about the use of animals in research. The effect of these laws on animal research is not yet known.

•   Non-Human Primates in Neuroscience (Session III): Non-human primates continue to be used in biomedical research, including neuroscience research. Such studies complement in vitro studies, in silico modeling, human brain imaging, and parallel investigations in rodents and other species.

•   Data Sharing (Session IV): Systematic reviews of preclinical data could potentially support the 3Rs (replacement, refinement, and reduction), improve the quality and value of animal studies, and better inform clinical trials. Research might benefit if preclinical animal data are more accessible, including negative data, primary data, and precompetitive data.

•   Engaging the Public (Session V): Communication between the scientific community and the public, the media, and policy makers about the role and welfare of animals in neuroscience research is critical. In some countries, public engagement and education can impact the public view of the use of animals in research.

•   Aligning Core Principles to Achieve Consistent Animal Care and Use Outcomes (Sessions I and VI): Animal research regulations might benefit from a careful balance of quality science, animal welfare, and public confidence. Animal welfare can be considered together with scientific goals and the larger needs of society. Alignment of animal research principles can be achieved independent of differing policies or practices. Core principles governing how animal studies might be conducted are the same for any discipline, including neuroscience.

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