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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 148 The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project F-15 ISSN 1073-4872 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISBN 978-0-309-21359-2 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand Library of Congress Control Number 2011938780 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to © 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by COPYRIGHT INFORMATION which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but they are considered essential to the object of the report. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 148 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Senior Program Officer Megha Khadka, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT F-15 PANEL Field of Human Resources Gordon Linton, 200consult, Rockville, MD (Chair) Mujeeb Basha, Illinois State Toll Highway Authority, Downers Grove, IL Freddie C. Fuller, II, Cubic Transportation Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA Virginia Harrington, San Mateo County (CA) Transit District, San Carlos, CA Cynthia A. Hernandez Whitehead, HDR ONE COMPANY, San Antonio, TX Barbara B. Kirkland, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Anthony M. Kouneski, AMK & Associates, Kensington, MD Jeanne Krieg, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA Dianne Mendoza, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Austin, TX Robert H. Prince, Jr., AECOM Consulting Transportation Group, Inc., Boston, MA Will Scott, Will Scott & Co., LLC, Cincinnati, OH Herman Scott, Response Group, Washington, DC Elvin Tobin, First Transit Inc., Mableton, GA Anita Heard, FTA Liaison Robert Owens, FTA Liaison Pamela Boswell, APTA Liaison Julie Cunningham, COMTO Liaison James B. McDaniel, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 148: Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Offi- cers at Public Transportation Agencies provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of pub- lic transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs. The report also assesses the transit industry’s recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that doc- uments the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions. This report will be helpful to members of public transportation governing boards, executive search firms, directors of human resources, and other key transit officials. The report addresses key issues and concerns in recruiting minority candidates at the CEO level in the public transportation industry. In addition, the report describes best practices, recruitment initiatives, and actions used by boards and executive search firms to recruit minorities for the CEO position at public transportation agencies. The report presents assessment and recruitment tools used for executive leadership positions. The report also describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies. It is well documented that CEOs and their governing boards set the corporate agenda. CEOs provide the leadership to achieve diversity and inclusion goals for any organization and drive results that recognize the business imperative of reaching diverse consumers, clients, and employees. Public transportation governing boards are responsible for appoint- ing the chief executive. Governing boards and recruitment consultants express difficulty in finding qualified minorities for CEO positions. The results of this research may help alleviate the challenges faced by public transportation governing boards and recruiters who are striving to obtain a diverse workforce, beginning with the executive ranks. To assist in the development of TCRP Report 148, the research team conducted a survey to identify the current practices used to recruit minorities into executive-level positions, with an emphasis on CEO positions at public transportation agencies. The survey participants were from public transportation agencies, executive search firms, public transportation gov- erning boards, and other industries. Based on the information gathered from the survey results, the researchers identified successful examples of processes used to recruit minorities into the CEO position, both inside and outside of the public transportation industry.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary Chapter 1 Literature Review 2 Chapter 2 Introduction: The Case for Diversity 4 4 The Growing Relevance of Workplace Diversity 4 Linking Diversity to Organizational Performance 5 Measuring the ROI for Diversity 6 Diversity Recruitment 7 Diversity Statistics for the C-Suite 7 Transportation Social and Demographic Trends 8 Transportation CEOs 8 Diversity Models and Strategic Alignment 9 Conclusion Chapter 3 Resources for Recruiting Minority CEOs 10 at Public Transit Agencies 10 Diversity CEO Recruitment Model 13 Executive Selection Process 15 Retention 18 Bibliography APPENDIX A Executive Leadership Selection Process 23 APPENDIX B Competency Modeling Worksheet 24 APPENDIX C Organization Modeling Worksheet 25 APPENDIX D Leadership Competency Library 26 APPENDIX E Types of Assessments 27 APPENDIX F Competency-Focused Structured Interviews 34 (Information Outline and Process Protocol) APPENDIX G Typology of Structured Interviews 35 APPENDIX H Sample Interview Templates 36 APPENDIX I Common Interviewer Biases 38 APPENDIX J Sample Leadership Succession 39 Management Process APPENDIX K Success Profile Template 42 Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.