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2 CHAPTER 1 Literature Review There were a number of major findings and themes from Research has been conducted over the years on various the study team’s literature review. A common recommen- methods and processes used to recruit, select, and retain exec- dation was to make diversity an integral part of the organi- utives, but there is a paucity of information available on minor- zation. For example, several articles advise that diversity at ity executives in the public transit industry or elsewhere. any level, particularly the executive level, requires active The TCRP F-15 Project research team conducted a compre- endorsement from senior leaders, including the board of direc- hensive review of relevant literature related to the recruitment, tors (Edmonds-Wickman, 2008; Gardenswartz and Rowe, selection, and retention of executives in both the public and 2006; Hastings, 2007). Many experts suggest that linking pay private sectors, focusing on information related to minor- to diversity would drive the required outcomes (Edmonds- ity executives in the public transit industry. Included in the Wickman, 2008; Gardenswartz and Rowe, 2001; Hastings, research were best practices, challenges, and trends that shed 2007; Hewlett et al., 2005). The healthcare industry, for exam- light on current and past executive talent management (that is, ple, has increasingly tied measures of commitment to ethnic the system by which minority individuals are recruited, hired, and gender diversity directly to annual performance evalua- developed, promoted, and retained) into leadership positions. tions (Larson, 2008). Key reference materials and sources of information are identi- There were several topics related to the barriers for recruit- fied in the References, and the review and findings from these ing minority executives. Many authors cited as a common materials are discussed below. barrier the fact that managers and recruiters believe that tal- A computerized bibliographic search was conducted using ented minority candidates are either difficult to find or non- the following databases: Regional Business Review, PsycINFO, existent, according to Gardenswartz and Row (2004). Several PsycArticles, ERIC, Academic Search Premiere, Business authors (Digh, 2005; Edmonds-Wickman, 2008; Ford, 2004) Source Elite, Business Source Complete, and Academy of suggest that the ways in which organizations search for minor- Management. These databases consist of abstracts, confer- ity candidates and the places they search should expand to ence papers, and peer-reviewed research articles from various nontraditional avenues. The National Football League (NFL) research journals. In addition, a manual search was con- addressed similar challenges by adopting the Rooney Rule, ducted of journals that publish research findings on mentor- which required decisionmakers to include at least one qualified ing. Some of these were as follows: minority candidate in the recruitment and selection process • (Wheaton, 2010). Consequently, the number of minorities Academy of Management Journal, • occupying head football coaching positions increased. The Journal of Applied Psychology, • State of Oregon adopted this practice when it signed legisla- Journal of Vocational Behavior, • tion that will require all state universities to interview at least Personnel Psychology, Work, Gender and Behavior Journal, • one minority candidate for each head coach and athletic Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, and • director position that becomes available in the future. Journal of Career Development. Finally, one major barrier discussed by Larson is that some executives and boards are not accustomed to working with Other sources included the Society of Human Resources minority candidates and, frankly, do not know how to do so. Management, Society of Industrial Organizational Psychol- In the GOLD study, The New Leaders: Guidelines on Leadership ogy, Human Capital Institute, Center for Creative Leadership, Diversity in America (Morrison, 1992), the Center for Creative Gallup Research, Institute for Executive Development, the Leadership (CCL) focused on addressing existing barriers and Federal Transit Administration, and the Conference Board.

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3 oping individuals professionally. Planning for succession and implementing strategies for promoting and executing minor- acceleration was another strong recommendation. Organiza- ity advancement at all levels, particularly in the executive suite. tions need to identify, track, and develop key individuals who One key finding was that, in order for change and progress to have the potential to rise to top-level positions. occur, high-level executives within the organization, includ- The literature review includes seminal, dated, and current ing CEOs, CEO-level (or “C-level”) employees, and boards of research articles on minorities in executive positions. More directors, must lead the effort and be active participants in specifically, the research focused on best practices, challenges, making diversity an important part of the business plan. trends, and strategies that companies and organizations have Literature regarding retaining minority executives had faced in recruiting and retaining minorities in executive lead- a few common themes. For example, Chhabra and Mishra ership positions. The seminal research dates back to the 1970s (2008) suggested mentoring programs and knowledge trans- and also includes sources as current as 2010. fer. They found that mentoring is a good method for devel-