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The Concession Mix 83 Figure 6-1. Concession design (Vancouver International Airport). sense of place and a unique passenger experience. This sense of place is incorporated into the con- cession design. Figure 6-2 shows how a theme has been used at an airport in Barbados to create a sense of place. Barbados is known for the chattel houses used by agricultural workers in the past. This theme has been used judiciously in the design of the concession space to create an environment that reflects both local design themes and the island’s cultural history. Chicago Midway International Airport also represents a good example of the use of material to create a sense of place, in this case an urban environment featuring traditional masonry and building canopies typical of the Windy City, as shown in Figure 6-3. 6.4 Branded Concessions There is a consensus among the operators of airports that branding contributes significantly to the performance of a concession program. National brands are important for any airport, while Figure 6-2. Examples of concession program theming at a Caribbean airport.

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84 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Figure 6-3. Urban design for concessions (Chicago Midway International Airport). regional and local brands may be more important at airports with a larger domestic passenger base. A main issue is the definition of what is considered a local brand or a regional brand, which may be determined on an airport-by-airport basis. The preferences of the airport’s customers in terms of branding can also be determined through the survey process. Figure 6-4 illustrates the results of a passenger survey of types of food service brands. This bar chart illustrates that almost 50% of passengers prefer a food program that includes a good assortment of national and local brands. With respect to the airport employee market, 60% prefer a concession program with a national and local assortment of brands. Of meeters/greeters and well-wishers, 42% also prefer this type of program. Passenger interviews and focus groups have noted that brands represent known quantities and safe choices that reduce the risk of a bad expe- rience and provide a product of known (although not necessarily high) quality. 70% 60% Passengers 60% Employees Meeters/greeters/well wishers 49% 50% 42% 40% 35% 34% 30% 23% 20% 15% 12% 10% 8% 9% 10% 5% 0% National and local Mainly national Mainly regional/local Brand not important Source: From 2004 LeighFisher survey. Figure 6-4. Branding preferences in one airport survey.

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The Concession Mix 89 Bookstore 74% Regional/Local Theme or Products 65% Candy/Chocolates 58% Electronics 56% Women's Clothing and Accessories 51% Jewelry 51% Movie/DVD Rentals/Accessories 49% Luggage, Handbags, Travel Accessories 47% Cosmetics/Soap/Personal Care 44% 42% Men's Clothing and Accessories Sunglasses 42% Toys/Games/Stuffed Animals 37% Golf Accessories and Equipment 35% Watches 33% Leather Goods 33% Other Sports Related 30% Children's and Infant's Clothing 30% Gourmet/Local Specialty Food 28% Pharmacy/Drug Store 23% Arts and Crafts 21% Shoes 19% Precious Stones and Gems 14% 12% Cigars Card Shop (Cards, Stationery, etc.) 12% Wine Accessories/Wine by the Bottle 9% Office/Business Supplies 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Source: LeighFisher using data from the airport surveys conducted for ACRP Project 01-11. Figure 6-8. Types of specialty retail concepts at surveyed airports. The duty free shops and related storage and warehouse facilities are considered a class of bonded warehouse, and their designs are subject to U.S. Customs and Border Protection approval. The Customs service delegates considerable authority to its regional and district direc- tors, so variations exist in how local duty free shops are built and operated. However, they must meet the requirements for bonded warehouses in terms of the security of the merchandise to pre- vent it from entering the domestic economy. Otherwise, no specific design standards exist for duty free shops.

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94 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Figure 6-11. Floor-mounted backlighted advertising diorama. Figure 6-12. Large dioramas.

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The Concession Mix 101 60% 51% 50% 40% 32% 30% 20% 12% 9% 10% 6% 0% CNN Ai rport Channel Wi -Fi – sponsored Children’ s play area – Tel evision wi th Soft drink pouring ri ghts sponsored sponsorship Source: LeighFisher using data from the airport surveys conducted for ACRP Project 01-11. Figure 6-21. Percentages of airports surveyed that have advertising sponsorships. Figure 6-22. Advertising in restrooms.

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The Concession Mix 103 Information can also be sent to customers through different media, including terminal adver- tising (especially on digital screens), boarding pass jackets, coupons and leaflets, wayfinding pan- els, and the like. More recently, software has been developed to inform passengers of concession promotions, and they can even check menus and place their orders on their portable electronic devices and smart phones. This information dissemination technology is still developing, build- ing upon the geographic information system (GPS) and location mapping software increasingly available in smart phones.