FIGURE A.5 Range of approaches taken to model urban processes in ULSM (modified from Grimmond et al. 2011).



of the urban energy balance and that accounting for evaporation is important. This study makes a number of recommendations for model development and model use (Grimmond et al. 2011).

Recommendations/Final Comments

A recent international review of urban meteorology for the World Climate Congress 3 made a series of recommendations for urban meteorology. In summary (modified from Grimmond et al. 2010b):

1. Observations: More operational urban measurement stations and networks within urban areas and upwind. The stations should conform to WMO Urban Guidelines (WMO 2006, Chapter 11). The long-term measurement stations in cities should be preserved. There is a need for vertical profiles of physical and chemical variables.

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