BOX 2.1

Examples of How Some End Users Apply
Urban Meteorological Information

Urban meteorological observation and modeling results are used in various applications by a variety of users. The types of data, as well as the temporal and spatial resolution required by these end users, vary substantially by application (Dabberdt abstract, Appendix A).


Decision makers in the insurance sector may use monthly climate summaries to validate industry catastrophe models, which simulate the geographical risk associated with natural and man-made catastrophes.


Retailers, such as local grocery stores, use short-term weather information, particularly about winter weather events. Managers of large-event venues (indoor and outdoor), such as sporting events, fairs/carnivals, concerts, etc., also use short-term weather information to make decisions about canceling events. Larger retailers, such as clothing stores, use longer-range weather and seasonal climate information.

Urban Design

Urban planners use meteorological information to assist in the development of climate change mitigation and adaption strategies of cities and regions. Urban planners could also use weather and climate information to help select urban locations that can ameliorate weather-related human suffering and mortality. Indeed, this would be a good subject for future multidisciplinary studies.

Environmental Regulation

Environmental protection agencies at federal, state, and local levels use meteorological information to monitor, regulate, and set standards for the protection of human health and the environment.

Local Government

County officials, educators, and school superintendants use meteorological information to make decisions about closing schools during winter weather and convective weather events.

Personal Decision Support

The general public makes personal decisions (e.g., weekend activities, outdoor recreation, wedding planning) in daily life.


Basic and applied researchers use meteorological information to conduct research in the various fields discussed in this report.

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