• A clear mechanism to help the urban meteorological community better identify user groups, reach out to them, and begin an ongoing dialogue to assess and better meet their needs has yet to be identified.

• It was apparent at the workshop that end users of urban meteorological information are heterogeneous and cover a vast spectrum of job roles, goals, needs, experience, and understanding. Acknowledging and understanding this heterogeneity is important for the urban meteorological community to better understand, interact with, and meet the needs of end users.

• Strong communication early in the process and throughout is key to successful coordination. This is a common theme present in several case studies, and examples discussed in this chapter highlighted success stories where the needs of the end user were met to a large degree (see Boxes 2.3, 2.6). In some cases, the end users worked directly with researchers to develop the tool they required (see Boxes 2.3, 2.4), which helped ensure they received a tool that could be tailored to their specific needs. The hallmarks of effective communication are a better understanding of capabilities on both sides; the successful translation (through collaboration) of user needs to the research community and research products to the end user community; and a better understanding in the research community of institutional constraints that end users face.

• Many workshop participants noted that more coordinated data sharing strategies among various agencies and training of various end user communities could help them utilize existing data. Several other data sharing issues are lacking, including quality assurance and metadata needs that could be addressed by the research and weather services communities as well as the end users. Coordinated data formats, available metadata, and novel dissemination strategies are increasingly essential as urban meteorological data and model output cross the research-to-operations “valley.”

• The workshop revealed an underrepresentation of urban meteorological, climatological, and field coursework and training at all educational levels. Advanced approaches to training and workforce development will be critical in producing the next generation of urban meteorological models and applications. It is important that students and professional stakeholders continue to be properly educated as the complexities of the urban meteorological/climatological environment evolve and as the academic community approaches cities as coupled human and natural systems that need to be sustainable. To strengthen training, it is crucial that urban meteorologists and end users attend joint conferences (such as the workshop for this report) and each other’s professional conferences. It is also mutually beneficial to jointly

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