train graduate students and postdoctoral researchers as well as exchanging personnel. This will give all groups involved a better understanding of what is available and unavailable in urban meteorology and how and what urban meteorology information is used in decision-making by end users.

Above all, it is essential that the urban meteorological community understands what data are needed by end users that are not currently produced or not conveyed in usable ways to end users. Creating and communicating weather forecast information that is usable to end users in ways that inform their decision-making requires social science research (conducted in partnership with meteorologists) and ongoing relationships with end users.

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