FIGURE 3.1 Number of days that maximum temperature exceeded 100 degrees (F) from June 1 to August 31, 2011. Urban heat islands in cities like Dallas and Oklahoma City likely caused prolonged heat exposure at night. SOURCE: NOAA.



There have been many reports that highlight the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on future weather and climate and a very clear sign of human alteration to atmospheric processes is evident (NRC, 2010b; NRC, 2011b; IPCC, 2007; USGCRP, 2009). There is also emerging interest in understanding the role of urbanization on the climate system, which includes weather (IPCC, 2007).

Cities change properties of the land surface and subsurface, and are also known to influence atmospheric circulation patterns at various spatial scales (Hidalgo et al., 2008; Grimmond et al., 2010b). The high building densities and sparseness of vegetation in cities makes urban surfaces

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