3

Ad Hoc Study Committees:
Activities and Membership

When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board (SSB) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Eight ad hoc study committees were active during 2011; their activities and membership are summarized below.

In addition, one ad hoc committee released a report in 2010 and was formally disbanded in 2011—the report of the ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions, Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions, was summarized in the 2010 annual report and final books were printed in 2011. Also in 2011, work began on forming the Committee on the Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program, a study sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey.

ASSESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINED OCEAN COLOR
RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) formed the ad hoc Committee on Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations, in collaboration with the SSB, to identify the ocean color data needs for a broad range of end users, develop a consensus for the requirements, and outline options to meet these needs on a sustained basis. The committee held six meetings in 2010, and members of the SSB Committee on Earth Studies and SSB staff attended the June 28-30 meeting.

The report of the committee, Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations, was released on July 7, 2011. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5.

Membership

James A. Yoder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (chair)

David Antoine, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Cedex, France

Carlos E. Del Castillo,* Johns Hopkins University

Robert H. Evans, Jr., University of Miami

Curtis Mobley, Sequoia Scientific, Inc.

_______________

*Resigned from the committee to take a position with NASA.



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3 Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board (SSB) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Eight ad hoc study committees were active during 2011; their activities and membership are summarized below. In addition, one ad hoc committee released a report in 2010 and was formally disbanded in 2011—the report of the ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions, Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions, was summarized in the 2010 annual report and final books were printed in 2011. Also in 2011, work began on form- ing the Committee on the Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program, a study sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey. ASSESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINED OCEAN COLOR RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) formed the ad hoc Committee on Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations, in collaboration with the SSB, to identify the ocean color data needs for a broad range of end users, develop a consensus for the requirements, and outline options to meet these needs on a sustained basis. The committee held six meetings in 2010, and members of the SSB Committee on Earth Studies and SSB staff attended the June 28-30 meeting. The report of the committee, Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations, was released on July 7, 2011. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership James A. Yoder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (chair) David Antoine, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Cedex, France Carlos E. Del Castillo,* Johns Hopkins University Robert H. Evans, Jr., University of Miami Curtis Mobley, Sequoia Scientific, Inc. *Resigned from the committee to take a position with NASA. 22

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23 Ad Hoc Study Committees Jorge L. Sarmiento, Princeton University Shubha Sathyendranath, Dalhousie University, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada Carl F. Schueler, Orbital Sciences Corporation David A. Siegel, University of California, Santa Barbara Cara Wilson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Staff Claudia Mengelt, Senior Program Officer, OSB (study director) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Heather Chiarello, Senior Program Assistant, OSB Jeremy Justice, Senior Program Assistant, OSB Emily Oliver, Program Assistant, OSB ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S EARTH SCIENCE PROGRAM The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program was formed to review the align- ment of the NASA Earth Science Division’s program with previous NRC advice, primarily the 2007 NRC decadal survey report, Earth Science and Applications from Space. In carrying out this study, the committee was directed to neither revisit or alter the scientific priorities or mission recommendations provided in the decadal survey and related NRC reports; however, the committee may provide guidance about implementing the recommended mission portfolio in preparation for the next decadal survey. The committee began work in March 2011 and held meetings on April 27-29 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C.; on July 6-8 in Seattle, Washington; and on September 21-23 at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California. The committee continued its discussion, deliberation, and report development. The committee’s report entered external peer review in late December 2011; release of an NRC-approved pre- publication version of the committee’s report is anticipated in Spring 2012. Membership Dennis L. Hartmann, University of Washington (chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems Stacey Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Anny Cazenave, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) Ruth S. DeFries, Columbia University Lee-Lueng Fu, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Bradford H. Hager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Hung-Lung Allen Huang, University of Wisconsin, Madison Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland, College Park Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington Jennifer A. Logan, Harvard University Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan Michael J. Prather, University of California, Irvine David S. Schimel, National Ecological Observatory Network, Inc. William F. Townsend, Independent Consultant Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University

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24 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Danielle Piskorz, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern DECADAL STRATEGY FOR SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS (HELIOPHYSICS) The Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) was formed to conduct a broadly based as- sessment decadal survey of the scientific priorities of the U.S. solar and space physics research enterprise for the period 2013-2022. The survey is composed of a steering committee supported by three discipline-oriented study panels. In addition, five “national capabilities working groups,” made up of community members who are willing to serve as unpaid consultants, assist the steering committee and panels in gathering information and providing context to the survey’s work in the following focus areas: Theory and Modeling and Data Exploitation; Explorers, Suborbital, and Other Platforms; Innovations: Technology, Instruments, Data Systems; Research to Operations/ Operations to Research (R2O/O2R); and Workforce and Education. In addition, the steering committee created several splinter study groups to address particular subjects of interest. The NRC contracted with the Aerospace Corporation to perform cost and technical analysis of selected survey- developed concepts. Assisted by representatives of the panels and the steering committee, the Aerospace Corpora- tion completed the first phase of this analysis during the first quarter. During 2011, the survey steering committee held the following meetings: February 1-3, Irvine, California; April 12-14, Washington, D.C.; June 14-16, Boulder, Colorado; August 29-31, Irvine, California; and November 16-18, Irvine California. At the June meeting of the steering committee, the Aerospace Corporation presented initial cost and technical analysis of selected survey-developed concepts and presented their final results at the August meeting. The three discipline-oriented study panels held the following meetings in 2011: • Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interaction (AIM): January 12-14, Washington, D.C.; June 1-3, Woods Hole, Massachusetts; • Panel on Solar and Heliospheric Physics (SH): January 10-12, Washington, D.C.; May 25-27, Boulder, Colorado; • Panel on Solar-Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions (SWM): January 18-20, Santa Fe, New Mexico; June 20-21, Washington, D.C. Several working groups also held meetings in 2011, and outreach events also occurred in connection with several NSF-sponsored summer schools. The R2O/O2R working group was present at a survey-sponsored town hall meeting on February 7-8, where invited speakers, working group members, and the public were encouraged to express their view of topics pertaining to space weather research-to-operations and the inverse. A solicitation to the community for mission concepts and related activities that might be undertaken in the coming decade drew 288 responses. Panels reviewed these concepts and white papers at their first and second meetings and made recommendations to the steering committee regarding a small number of concepts that might go forward in an independent cost and technical evaluation. In response to a request from NASA, the survey also broadened its workplan to include explicit consideration of “decision rules” relevant to the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission, which is currently planned for a 2018 launch. On August 11, 2011, the survey’s study group on SPP met in Washington, D.C., and received briefings from agency officials; SPP project and program scientists, many of whom are working at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Labora- tory; and all of the SPP instrument principal investigators. As the third quarter ended, the three study panels were finalizing their submissions to the steering committee, as were the working groups and study groups. Preparations were also underway for the steering committee’s final meeting in November. During the fourth quarter, following the steering committee’s November meeting, drafts of all sections of the report were complete and revisions and editing were underway to prepare the report for external review. Although the target date for approval of a prepublication report was March 31, 2012, a short delay to accommodate changes in the study’s work plan may be required.

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25 Ad Hoc Study Committees Steering Committee Membership Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan (vice chair) Brian J. Anderson, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering James F. Drake, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan Marvin A. Geller, Stony Brook University Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research Michael A. Hesse, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University Mary K. Hudson, Dartmouth College David L. Hysell, Cornell University Thomas Immel, University of California, Berkeley Justin Kasper, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Ramon E. Lopez, University of Texas, Arlington Howard J. Singer, NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Harlan E. Spence, University of New Hampshire Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Maureen Mellody, Program Officer, ASEB Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Linda Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions Membership Jeffrey M. Forbes, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) James H. Clemmons, The Aerospace Corporation (vice chair) Odile de la Beaujardiere, Air Force Research Laboratory John V. Evans, COMSAT Corporation (retired) Roderick A. Heelis, University of Texas, Dallas Thomas Immel, University of California, Berkeley Janet U. Kozyra, University of Michigan William Lotko, Dartmouth College Gang Lu, High Altitude Observatory Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Jens Oberheide, Clemson University Larry J. Paxton, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Robert F. Pfaff, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Joshua Semeter, Boston University Jeffrey P. Thayer, University of Colorado, Boulder Panel on Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions Membership Michelle F. Thomsen, Los Alamos National Laboratory (chair) Michael Wiltberger, National Center for Atmospheric Research (vice chair)

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26 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Joseph Borovsky, Los Alamos National Laboratory Joseph F. Fennell, The Aerospace Corporation Jerry Goldstein, Southwest Research Institute Janet C. Green, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Donald A. Gurnett, University of Iowa Lynn M. Kistler, University of New Hampshire Michael W. Liemohn, University of Michigan Robyn Millan, Dartmouth College Donald G. Mitchell, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Tai D. Phan, University of California, Berkeley Michael Shay, University of Delaware Harlan E. Spence, University of New Hampshire Richard M. Thorne, University of California, Los Angeles Panel on Solar and Heliospheric Physics Membership Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology (chair) Spiro K. Antiochos, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (vice chair) Timothy S. Bastian, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Joe Giacalone, University of Arizona George Gloeckler, University of Maryland, College Park John W. Harvey, National Solar Observatory Russell A. Howard, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Justin Kasper, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley Glenn M. Mason, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Eberhard Moebius, University of New Hampshire Merav Opher, George Mason University Jesper Schou, Stanford University Nathan A. Schwadron, Boston University Amy Winebarger, Alabama A&M University Daniel Winterhalter, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Thomas N. Woods, University of Colorado, Boulder DECADAL SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE The Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space was formed under the auspices of the SSB and the ASEB in response to a congressional request for a study to establish priorities and provide recommenda- tions for life and physical sciences space research, including research that will enable exploration missions in microgravity and partial gravity for the 2010-2020 decade. The decadal survey will define research areas, recom- mend a research portfolio and a timeline for conducting that research, identify facility and platform requirements as appropriate, provide rationales for suggested program elements, define dependencies between research objec- tives, identify terrestrial benefits, and specify whether the research product directly enables exploration or produces fundamental new knowledge. These areas will be categorized as either those that are required to enable exploration missions or those that are enabled or facilitated because of exploration missions. The steering committee’s interim report, Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Explo- ration: An Interim Report, was released in July 2010. Work on the final report continued during the steering com- mittee’s October 2010 meeting. Revisions to the report in response to comments from some 40 external peer reviewers was completed in Janu- ary 2011, and the report received sign-off in February. Following editorial revisions, the prepublication version of the report, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, was delivered to NASA on March 28 and publicly released on April 5. A number of briefings with NASA and congres- sional staff were held in early April, including a joint briefing to the Office of Management and Budget and Office

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27 Ad Hoc Study Committees of Science and Technology Policy staff, a briefing to the NASA Advisory Council, and a briefing to a European Science Foundation workshop. During the fourth quarter, final publication of the report was completed and dissemination activities continued. Co-chair Betsy Cantwell gave an invited talk on the report at the International Space Station Utilization Workshop on December 16 in Tokyo, Japan. Steering Committee Membership* Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (co-chair) Wendy M. Kohrt, University of Colorado, Denver (co-chair) Lars Berglund, University of California, Davis Nicholas P. Bigelow, University of Rochester Leonard H. Caveny, Independent Consultant Vijay K. Dhir, University of California, Los Angeles Joel Dimsdale, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine Nikolaos A. Gatsonis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Simon Gilroy, University of Wisconsin, Madison Benjamin D. Levine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Kathryn V. Logan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Gabor A. Somorjai, University of California, Berkeley Charles M. Tipton, University of Arizona Jose L. Torero, University of Edinburgh, Scotland Robert Wegeng, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Gayle E. Woloschak, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Alan C. Angleman, Senior Program Officer,† ASEB Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer, SSB Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer,† Board on Physics and Astronomy Maureen Mellody, Program Officer,† ASEB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Danielle Johnson-Bland,† Senior Program Assistant, Committee on Law and Justice Laura Toth,† Senior Program Assistant, National Materials Advisory Board Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Eric Whittaker,† Senior Program Assistant, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Animal and Human Biology Panel Membership‡ Kenneth M. Baldwin, University of California, Irvine (chair) François M. Abboud, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine Peter R. Cavanagh, University of Washington V. Reggie Edgerton, University of California, Los Angeles Donna Murasko, Drexel University John T. Potts, Jr., Massachusetts General Hospital April E. Ronca, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Charles M. Tipton, University of Arizona John B. West, University of California, San Diego *All terms expired on November 30, 2010. †Staff from other NRC boards who assisted with the survey. ‡All terms expired on May 31, 2011.

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28 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Applied Physical Sciences Panel Membership* Peter W. Voorhees, Northwestern University (chair) Nikolaos A. Gatsonis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Richard T. Lahey, Jr., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Richard M. Lueptow, Northwestern University John J. Moore, Colorado School of Mines Elaine S. Oran, Naval Research Laboratory Amy L. Rechenmacher, University of Southern California James S. T’ien, Case Western Reserve University Mark M. Weislogel, Portland State University Fundamental Physics Panel Membership* Robert V. Duncan, University of Missouri (chair) Nicholas P. Bigelow, University of Rochester Paul M. Chaikin, New York University Ronald G. Larson, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Boulder Ronald Walsworth, Harvard University Human Behavior and Mental Health Panel Membership* Thomas J. Balkin, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (chair) Joel E. Dimsdale, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine Nick Kanas, University of California, San Francisco Gloria R. Leon, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Lawrence A. Palinkas, University of California, San Diego Integrative and Translational Research for the Human System Panel Membership* James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University (chair) Alan R. Hargens, University of California, San Diego Robert L. Helmreich, University of Texas, Austin (retired) Joanne R. Lupton, Texas A&M University, College Station Charles M. Oman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology David Robertson, Vanderbilt University Suzanne M. Schneider, University of New Mexico Gayle E. Woloschak, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Plant and Microbial Biology Panel Membership* Terri L. Lomax, North Carolina State University (chair) Paul Blount, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Robert J. Ferl, University of Florida Simon Gilroy, University of Wisconsin, Madison E. Peter Greenberg, University of Washington School of Medicine Translation to Space Exploration Systems Panel Membership* James P. Bagian, U.S. Air Force and University of Michigan (chair) *All terms expired on May 31, 2011.

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29 Ad Hoc Study Committees Frederick R. Best, Texas A&M University, College Station Leonard H. Caveny, Independent Consultant Michael B. Duke, Colorado School of Mines (retired) John P. Kizito, North Carolina A&T State University David Y. Kusnierkiewicz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory E. Thomas Mahefkey, Jr., Heat Transfer Technology Consultants Dava J. Newman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Richard J. Roby, Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc. Guillermo Trotti, Trotti and Associates, Inc. Alan Wilhite, Georgia Institute of Technology EVALUATION OF SPACE RADIATION CANCER RISK MODEL The Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model was formed to review NASA’s risk model for radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The committee held its first on meeting on June 13-15 in Washington, D.C. The committee heard a large number of briefings describing various aspects of the proposed NASA risk model for radiation- induced cancer in astronauts and on recent research relevant to that model. After a subsequent discus- sion of issues related to the model with NASA participants and invited speakers, the committee went into closed session on the second day. The committee reviewed the model and identified questions and areas where additional information was needed. A report outline and writing assignments were developed and plans were made for activi- ties leading up to the next committee meeting. On August 3-5 the committee met in Washington, D.C., to discuss and assess component modules in the NASA risk model for radiation-induced cancer in astronauts and to draft and revise sections of the committee report. One open session was held on the second day of the meeting, in which committee members closely questioned NASA radiation scientist Francis Cucinotta regarding aspects of the proposed model and saw a demonstration of the in- tegrated model’s desktop graphical user interface. At the close of the meeting the committee submitted additional questions of clarification to NASA and set writing assignments and schedules. The committee held its final meeting on September 12-14, at which time it reviewed the recently published final version of the NASA model, along with a number of resource materials it had requested from NASA. During the meeting the committee reviewed and extensively revised the integrated draft of the report and worked to develop its final conclusions and recommendations. Following the meeting, committee members continued to refine sections of the report and develop summary materials in preparation for external review. During the fourth quarter, the committee continued to finalize its draft report, and the draft entered external review in late October. After receiving the comments of each reviewer, the committee continued to refine the report to address all issues raised and this work was completed in mid-December. The report was released in prepublica- tion form in January 2012. Membership R. Julian Preston, Environmental Protection Agency (chair) Joel S. Bedford, Colorado State University Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, National Cancer Institute B. John Garrick, Garrick Consulting Dudley T. Goodhead, Medical Research Council, United Kingdom (emeritus) Bernard A. Harris, Jr., Vesalius Ventures, Inc. Kathryn D. Held, Massachusetts General Hospital David G. Hoel, Medical University of South Carolina Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Insoo Jun, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Charles E. Land, National Cancer Institute (retired) Hans-Georg Menzel, CERN (retired) Peter O’Neill, University of Oxford

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30 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Amanda R. Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Rodney Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE NEW WORLDS, NEW HORIZONS DECADAL SURVEY The Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) requested that the NRC convene a panel to consider whether NASA’s Euclid proposal is consistent with achieving the priorities, goals, and recommendations, and with pursuing the science strategy, articulated in 2010 astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (NWNH). The ad hoc Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey was formed under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) in collaboration with the SSB. The panel also investigated what impact NASA’s participation in Euclid might have on the prospects for the timely realization of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission and other activities recommended by NWNH in view of the projected budgetary situation. A workshop was convened at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 7, 2010, and included presentations from NASA, the European Space Agency, OSTP, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and members of the domestic and foreign astronomy and astrophysics communities. In addi- tion to the workshop, the panel met by teleconference call in 2010 on October 27, November 3, and November 16. The report of the panel was released in prepublication form on December 10, 2010, and is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* Adam S. Burrows, Princeton University (co-chair) Charles F. Kennel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (co-chair) Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science Debra M. Elmegreen, Vassar College Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Steven M. Ritz, University of California, Santa Cruz A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Staff David B. Lang, Program Officer, BPA (study director) Caryn J. Knutsen, Associate Program Officer, BPA Teri Thorowgood, Administrative Coordinator, BPA Beth Dolan, Financial Associate, BPA PLANETARY PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR ICY BODIES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM The ad hoc Committee on Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Solar System was established to develop and recommend planetary protection policies for future spacecraft missions, including orbiters, landers, and subsurface probes, to the icy bodies in the outer solar system (asteroids, satellites, Kuiper belt objects, and comets) in light of current scientific understanding and ongoing improvements in mission-enabling capabilities and technologies. Following several organizational conference calls held in the last quarter of 2010, the committee’s first and sec- ond meetings were held at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., and the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on January 31-February 2, 2011, and March 16-18, 2011, respectively. Both meetings were devoted to gathering the necessary biological and planetological background to *All terms ended on April 30, 2011.

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31 Ad Hoc Study Committees undertake the study. A detailed outline of the committee’s report was drafted during the meeting in California. The committee held a conference call on May 13, 2011, and convened its third and final meeting at the Beckman Center on June 14-16, 2011. A complete draft of the committee’s report was assembled during the summer months. The draft text was sent to nine external reviewers in late October. All reviews were received by late November, with the study director and committee chair meeting a final time in December to double-check facts and figures. The report has been revised in response to reviewer comments and is currently awaiting NRC approval. Delivery of a final NRC-approved docu- ment to NASA is scheduled for mid- to late March of 2012. Membership Mitchell L. Sogin, Marine Biological Laboratory (chair) Geoffrey Collins, Wheaton College (vice chair) Amy Baker, Technical Administrative Services John A. Baross, University of Washington Amy C. Barr, Brown University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Charles S. Cockell, University of Edinburgh Michael J. Daly, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Joseph R. Fragola, Valador, Inc. Rosaly M. Lopes, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California Douglas S. Stetson, Space Science and Exploration Consulting Group Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Katie Daud, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Danielle Piskorz, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Heather D. Smith, NRC Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow Anna B. Williams, NRC Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow PLANETARY SCIENCES DECADAL SURVEY: 2013-2022 The Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey: 2013-2022 was established to develop a comprehensive science and mission strategy for planetary science that updates and extends the 2003 solar system exploration decadal survey, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy. The new decadal survey was designed to broadly canvas the planetary science community to determine the current state of knowledge and then identify the most important scientific questions expected to face the community during the interval 2013-2022. This 2-year study was initiated at the request of NASA and NSF in 2009. To assist its activities, the decadal survey commissioned mission studies that were undertaken at the Applied Physics Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In a related activity, the decadal survey engaged the services of the Aerospace Corporation to provide independent cost and technical evaluations of the highest-priority mission concepts resulting from these studies. The steering group and panel meetings and related community outreach activities began in the summer of 2009 and concluded in the summer of 2010. The decadal survey’s report, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, was delivered to NASA and NSF in prepublication form in late February 2011 and was released to the public on March 7 at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Texas. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Briefings about the report’s conclusions and recommendations were given to NASA, NSF, OMB, OSTP, and various congressional committees during the period of March 1-5.

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32 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Following the release of the report, members of the steering group made presentations about the report at the meetings of VEXAG, LEAG, OPAG, the European Geophysical Union, the NAC’s Planetary Science Sub- committee, and the NAC’s Science Committee. Other dissemination activities included a series of regional town hall meetings organized by the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society, which included town halls in College Park, Maryland; Boulder, Colorado; Tucson, Arizona; Orlando, Florida; New York, New York; Pasadena, California; and St. Louis, Missouri. Papers on the survey’s origin, organization, and outcome and on the survey’s public outreach activities were delivered by NRC staff at the International Astronautical Congress (Cape Town, South Africa) and at the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society (Nantes, France), respectively. An illustrated version of the survey report intended for a popular audience is currently in preparation and is currently scheduled for publication early in 2012. Steering Group Membership* Steven W. Squyres, Cornell University (chair) Laurence A. Soderblom, U.S. Geological Survey (vice chair) Wendy M. Calvin, University of Nevada, Reno Dale Cruikshank, NASA Ames Research Center Pascale Ehrenfreund, George Washington University G. Scott Hubbard, Stanford University Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California, Los Angeles B. Gentry Lee, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jane Luu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Ralph L. McNutt, Jr., Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Amy Simon-Miller, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center David J. Stevenson, California Institute of Technology A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, SSB Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Satellites Panel Membership† John Spencer, Southwest Research Institute (chair) David J. Stevenson, California Institute of Technology (vice chair) Glenn Fountain, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Caitlin Ann Griffith, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles Christopher P. McKay, NASA Ames Research Center Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory *All terms ended in August 2011. †Terms ended for the chair and vice chair in August 2011 and for members in October 2010.

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33 Ad Hoc Study Committees Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles Thomas R. Spilker, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Elizabeth P. Turtle, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Hunter Waite, Southwest Research Institute Giant Planets Panel Membership* Heidi B. Hammel, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (chair) Amy Simon-Miller, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (vice chair) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University John R. Casani, Jet Propulsion Laboratory John Clarke, Boston University Brigette Hesman, University of Maryland William B. Hubbard, University of Arizona Mark S. Marley, NASA Ames Research Center Philip D. Nicholson, Cornell University R. Wayne Richie, NASA Langley Research Center (retired) Kunio M. Sayanagi, California Institute of Technology Inner Planets Panel Membership* Ellen R. Stofan, Proxemy Research, Inc. (chair) Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute (vice chair) Barbara A. Cohen, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Martha S. Gilmore, Wesleyan University Lori Glaze, Proxemy Research David H. Grinspoon, Denver Museum of Nature and Science Steven A. Hauck II, Case Western Reserve University Ayanna M. Howard, Georgia Institute of Technology Charles K. Shearer, University of New Mexico Douglas S. Stetson, Space Science and Exploration Consulting Group Edward M. Stolper, California Institute of Technology Allan H. Treiman, Lunar and Planetary Institute Mars Panel Membership* Philip R. Christensen, Arizona State University (chair) Wendy M. Calvin, University of Nevada, Reno (vice chair) Raymond E. Arvidson, Washington University Robert D. Braun,† Georgia Institute of Technology Glenn E. Cunningham, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (retired) David Des Marais,‡ NASA Ames Research Center Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Francois Forget, University of Paris John P. Grotzinger, California Institute of Technology Penelope King, University of New Mexico Philippe Lognonne, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Paul R. Mahaffy, Goddard Institute for Space Studies Lisa M. Pratt, Indiana University *Terms ended for the chair and vice chair in August 2011 and for members in October 2010. †Term ended February 8, 2010. ‡Term ended August 1, 2010.

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34 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Primitive Bodies Panel Membership* Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University (chair) Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville (vice chair) Erik Asphaug, University of California, Santa Cruz Michael E. Brown, California Institute of Technology Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington Marc Buie, Southwest Research Institute Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History Marc D. Rayman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edward Reynolds, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Mark Sephton, Imperial College London Jessica Sunshine, University of Maryland, College Park Faith Vilas, MMT Observatory *Terms ended for the chair and vice chair in August 2011 and for members in October 2010.