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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study com- mittees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. During 2011, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Studies (CES; renamed the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space [CESAS] in 2012), the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL; jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP). On September 18, 2011, COMPLEX and COEL were disestablished. The Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science (CAPS), to be established in 2012, will combine the responsibilities formerly exercised by COMPLEX and COEL. Pending NRC approval, the co-chairs and members of CAPS will be identified and ap- pointed in the first quarter of 2012. It is anticipated that the committee’s first meeting will occur during the first or second quarter of 2012. SPACE STUDIES BOARD HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES The Space Studies Board did not meet during the first quarter of 2011. The spring meeting of the board was held at the beginning of the second quarter on April 6-7 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. The first day of the meeting was a joint session of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) and the SSB at which the boards were updated by and had discussions with a number of NASA representatives, including NASA Administrator Bolden and NASA Chief Scientist Waleed Abdalati; congressional staff; and Executive Office of the President staff. The boards were also briefed by Wendy Kohrt, co-chair of the steering committee for Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, which was publically released that day. The second day of the meeting included briefings on the programs and budgets for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences, NOAA/NESDIS, and NASA’s Science Mission Directorate; an update from the European Space Sciences Committee; a briefing from the chair of the planetary science decadal survey (Steve Squyres) and the chair of the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey (Roger Blandford); and an evaluation of the decadal survey cost appraisal and technical evaluation process by Steve Battel (a member of the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey committee and the solar and space physics decadal survey committee). 8

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9 Board and Standing Committees The SSB Executive Committee (XCOM) met on August 18-19 at the Birch Aquarium at the Scripps Oceanographic Institute in La Jolla, California, for its annual strategic planning session. The XCOM met with Carl Wieman (OSTP), Marc Allen (NASA), and Jeff Bingham (Senate staff) to get views from some of their stakeholders. This session included a discussion on the impacts of recent reports, future areas of study for the board, and the role of the board and standing committees. The members also discussed lessons learned and impacts from the decadal sur- veys, the midterm assessments of the decadal survey process, and the cost and technical risk assessments that have been done for the recent decadal surveys in the context of a workshop to be held in 2012. The XCOM was briefed by Wendy Kohrt, co-chair for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space, on the impacts of the report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration and by Ann Karagozian on the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board report The Future of Launch Vehicles for the U.S. Air Force. XCOM members were also briefed by SSB staff member Sandra Graham on the plans for a generational study on the human spaceflight program, which will be led by the ASEB in cooperation with the SSB and sister boards from the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The SSB met November 8-9, 2011, at the National Academies Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, to receive briefings from NASA, representatives of different scientific disciplines, and NRC staff and committee chairs to update them on the progress of current SSB studies. In addition, staff and board members wel- comed four new members to the board. Prior to SSB meeting, the SSB and the BPA held a joint session at the BPA’s board meeting on November 7, where they were briefed by representatives of NASA, NSF, the Department of Energy, and staffers from the relevant committees of the Senate and House of Representatives. Both boards were updated on the progress of the James Webb Space Telescope, which dominated much of the discussion of the two boards over the course of each board’s meeting. Topics presented to the SSB on November 8 included NASA’s views on access to space for space science (presented by Mike Luther, NASA), hosted payloads (presented by Steven Volz, NASA), and the planning for the human spaceflight study requested in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act. The final day of the November SSB meeting was dedicated to a session on life and physical sciences research in space, with a focus on research on the International Space Station (ISS). This session followed up on the 2011 release of the joint SSB-ASEB decadal survey on life and physical sciences in space, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog. php?record_id=13048). With an eye toward stewardship of the decadal survey, the SSB received scientific presenta- tions from David Weitz of Harvard University and Scott Trappe of Ball State University on soft matter research in microgravity and skeletal muscle health with spaceflight, respectively. The session and board meeting concluded with presentations on NASA’s plans for science and engineering on the ISS (presented by Gale Allen, NASA Office of the Chief Scientist) and an overview of the newly created Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division by acting director Brad Carpenter. SPACE STUDIES BOARD MEMBERSHIP July 1, 2010–June 30, 2011 July 1, 2011–June 30, 2012 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Diego (chair) (chair) John M. Klineberg,* Space Systems/Loral (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice (vice chair) chair) Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Laboratory Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College of Utah Laboratory Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College of Utah Institution Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Research * Term began in February 2011.

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10 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Heidi B. Hammel, Space Science Institute Heidi B. Hammel, AURA Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley* Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future John F. Mustard, Brown University Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John F. Mustard, Brown University California Institute of Technology Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, James Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University California Institute of Technology Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine James Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University David N. Spergel, Princeton University Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC David N. Spergel, Princeton University Warren M. Washington, National Center for Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Research Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Clifford M. Will, Washington University Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Ex Officio and Liaison Participants Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (ex-officio, chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jean-Pierre Swings, Université de Liège (liaison, chair of the European Space Science Committee) Membership of the SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2010–June 30, 2011 July 1, 2011–June 30, 2012 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Diego (chair) (chair) John M. Klineberg,† Space Systems/Loral (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice (vice chair) chair) Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Laboratory Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Laboratory Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. California Institute of Technology Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC California Institute of Technology Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Staff in 2011 Michael H. Moloney, Director Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Dwayne A. Day, ‡ Program Officer, SSB; then Senior Program Officer, ASEB (promoted in February) David Lang,‡ Program Officer, BPA Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer * Dr. Lin is also the U.S. Representative to COSPAR. † Term began in February 2011. ‡ Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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11 Board and Standing Committees Lewis Groswald, Research Associate Amanda Thibault,* Research Associate, ASEB Celeste A. Naylor, Information Management Associate Tanja E. Pilzak, Manager, Program Operations Christina O. Shipman, Financial Officer Sandra Wilson, Senior Financial Assistant Catherine A. Gruber, Editor Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator Dionna Williams, Program Associate Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant Space Policy Interns Rachael Alexandroff, 2011 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Katie Daud, 2011 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Danielle Piskorz, 2011 Fall Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Christine Mirzayan Fellows Heather Smith, Winter 2011 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow Anna Williams, Fall 2011 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR COSPAR The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) held its annual business meetings in Paris, France, on March 21-24. A major topic of discussion during the meetings of both the COSPAR Scientific Advisory Committee and the Bureau was the proposal raised during the Bremen Assembly of initiating a series of COSPAR Symposia to be held in non-assembly years. The basic motivation for these new events is that the biannual scientific assemblies have grown so big that only developed countries have facilities sufficiently large to host one. The off-year symposia would be formatted and scaled so that developing nations could readily host one. While many arguments were made both for and against the proposed new events, the Bureau decided that the concept had sufficient merit that one would be held as a test case. COSPAR provisionally accepted a proposal from Thailand to host the first COSPAR off-year symposium in 2013. The 39th COSPAR scientific assembly will be held in Mysore, India, on July 14-22, 2012. COSPAR’s 40th scientific assembly will be held in Moscow, Russia, on August 2-10, 2014. U.S. Representative to COSPAR Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (executive secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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12 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 STANDING COMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the BPA, continued to be on hiatus through completion of the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey. In the first quarter of 2012, CAA will be stood up and members will be appointed. The CAA is expected to meet in Spring 2012. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.1. Staff David Lang, Program Officer, BPA Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB COMMITTEE ON EARTH STUDIES The Committee on Earth Studies did not meet during 2011. All membership terms ended on December 31, 2010, although several former members of CES are serving on the ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program (see Chapter 3). The Committee on Earth Studies will be renamed the Committee on Earth Sciences and Applications from Space, and the NRC will stand up this new committee in 2012. Appointments to the committee are expected to be completed by early Spring 2012. A historical summary of reports from CES and related committees is presented in Figure 2.2. Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB COMMITTEE ON THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE The Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Life Sciences, held its first meeting of 2011 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on March 2-5. In addition to updates concerning NASA’s Planetary Science Division, Astrobiology Program, and the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the committee heard presentations on a variety of topics, including scientific activities in Antarctica, the latest theoretical studies on martian methane models, the rise of oxygen in Earth’s atmo- sphere, and the use of nucleic acids as bio-markers. In addition, the committee heard a series of different scientific and philosophical perspectives on the recent identification of arsenic-tolerant microbes in Mono Lake and their connection, if any, to the concepts of weird life and shadow biospheres. The committee also discussed NASA’s response to the Mono Lake result and its own future in light of the nascent plans to merge COEL and COMPLEX. COEL held its 35th and final meeting at the National Academies’ J. Erik Jonsson Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on June 7-8. The scope of the meeting was both retrospective and prospective in that the committee reviewed how exo/astrobiology had been represented in SSB activities over the past 50 years and how it might be handled in the future. Discussions concerning the latter focused on the merger of COEL and COMPLEX to create a new Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science (CAPS). The committee’s discussions were enlivened and enriched by the participation of several former chairs and co-chairs of both COMPLEX and COEL and stimulated by the inclusion of topical agenda items on creationism and the ORIRIS-Rex, SAGE, and EPOXI missions. All NRC committees are ultimately ephemeral and are best remembered by their legacy of published reports. COEL was particularly active during its 11 years of existence. Its track record of nine full-length studies, including the study on icy bodies in progress (see Chapter 3) and one letter report, is as good as, if not better than, that of any comparable committee during the past decade.

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13 Board and Standing Committees A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and First Century⎯Astronomy and Observatories for Astronomy Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Strategy for Ground-Based A Scientific Assessment of Review of Gravity Optical and Infrared a New Technology Orbital Probe B (1995) Astronomy (1995) Telescope (1995) Federal Funding of Failed Stars and Super A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Astronomical Planets (1998) and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Research (2000) Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) “Review of Science U.S. Astronomy and The Atacama Large Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) Requirements for the Astrophysics: Managing Millimeter Array Terrestrial Planet Finder: Terrestrial Planet Finder: an Integrated Program an Integrated Program (ALMA): Implications (ALMA): Implications (2001) Letter Report” (2004) of a Potential “The Review of Progress in Descope (2005) Astronomy and Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy The Astrophysical (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) Science Centers (2007) Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Beyond Einstein Program: An A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Performance Assessment of NASA Architecture for Implementation (2007) Astrophysics Program (2007) New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010) Panel Reports⎯New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011) Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey (prepublication, 2011) FIGURE 2.1 SSB-NRC advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2011).

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14 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 NASA's Plans for Post-2002 Earth Observing Missions (1999) "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research—I. Systems for Climate Research—II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Program Plan (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government :Information for St Management and Decision Making (2003) Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: “Assessment of NASA's Draft Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy” (2003) Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Review of Goals and Plans for Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) NASA's Space and Earth Sciences (2005) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) “A Review of NASA's 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report” (2006) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (2007)* Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (2008) Uncertainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data: Summary of a Workshop (2009) Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions (2011) Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations (2011) *The edited and final version of this Workshop Summary is also included as Appendix B in Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft (2008) FIGURE 2.2 SSB-NRC advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2011).

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15 Board and Standing Committees COEL was disestablished on September 18, 2011. Responsibility for astrobiology will be transferred to the SSB’s proposed new CAPS. A historical summary of reports from COEL and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3. Membership* J. Gregory Ferry, Pennsylvania State University (co-chair) Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (co-chair) Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa Barbara Katrina J. Edwards, University of Southern California Margo G. Haygood, University of Colorado, Boulder Dante Lauretta, University of Arizona Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Jeff Moersch, University of Tennessee, Knoxville John C. Priscu, Montana State University Gary Ruvkin, Masachusetts General Hospital Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Everett Shock, Arizona State University Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, University of New Mexico European Space Science Committee Liaison Frances Westall, CNRS Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Orleans, France Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) stood down during the conduct of the plan- etary sciences decadal survey and disestablished on September 18, 2011. Responsibility for planetary science has been transferred to the SSB’s new Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science. A historical summary of planetary science reports from COMPLEX and related committees is presented in Figure 2.4. Related reports in the area of astrobiology and planetary protection are presented in Figure 2.3. Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics was on hiatus until the completion of the solar and space physics (heliophysics) decadal survey. The committee will be stood up again in the late Spring or early Summer of 2012. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. * All terms expired on June 30, 2011.

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16 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Astrobiology and Planetary Protection Mars Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the “Study on the Exploration of Mars (1965) Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) “Review of the Extraterrestrial Life—An Anthology and Bibliography, Sterilization Supplementary to Biology and the Exploration of Mars (1966) Parameter Probability “Review of Planetary of Growth (Pg)” Quarantine Policy” (1970) (1972) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Investigations of Mars (1977) Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Life—Implications Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, for the Planets: A Scientific Strategy for Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) the 1980s (1981) “On NASA Policy for Planetary “On Categorization of the The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Protection” (1985) Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “Recommendation on “On Categorization Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: Planetary Protection of the Comet 1990-2000 (1990) Categorization of the Comet Rendezvous– Biological Contamination of Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby Asteroid Flyby Mars: Issues and Mission and the Titan- Mission” (1986) Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Mars Sample Return: Issues Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) and Recommendations Evaluating Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) Preventing the “On Scientific Assessment Forward of Options for the Contamination of Disposition of the Galileo The Quarantine and Certification Europa (2000) Spacecraft” (2000) of Martian Samples (2002) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) The the Exploration of Mars (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Assessment of Planetary The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Solar System Bodies (in press) Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) (2009) Under the auspices of COEL FIGURE 2.3 SSB-NRC advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2011).

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17 Board and Standing Committees OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES INNER PLANETS Lunar Exploration— Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Primitive Solar-System Strategy for Exploration of the A Strategy for Exploration Bodies Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, Comets Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) 1977 of the Outer Pllanets: th P and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 1986-1996 (1986) (1980) Update to Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Pllanetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) th P 1995 A Science Strategy for the Assessment of Mars Exploring the Trans- Exploration of Europa (1999) Science and Mission Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The The Exploration of The Quarantine and Near-Earth Objects Certification of Martian (1998) Samples (2001) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA's Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System: Interim Report (2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (2009) Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 (2011) FIGURE 2.4 SSB-NRC advice on solar system exploration (1969-2011). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.3.

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18 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer The Physics of the Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Sun (1985) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Imperati Decades 1995 to 2015⎯Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics⎯1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Astronomy and Radiation and the Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: Astrophysics in the International Space Station: Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for New Millennium Recommendations to Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) (2000) Reduce Risk (1999) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Distributed Arrays of Small Solar and Space Physics Heliosphere and the Local Instruments for Solar- and Its Role in Space Interstellar Medium: A Exploration (2004) Terrestrial Research: Report Workshop Report (2004) Workshop of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) Severe Space Weather Events ⎯Understanding Societal and Understanding Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008) A Performance Assessment of NASA's Heliophysics Program (2009) FIGURE 2.5 SSB-NRC advice on solar and space physics (1980-2011).

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19 Board and Standing Committees Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Amanda Thibault,* Research Associate, ASEB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB SPACE RESEARCH DISCIPLINES WITHOUT STANDING COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION Although there are no longer standing committees representing microgravity research or space biology and medicine, a decadal survey on biological and physical sciences in space was conducted (see Chapter 3). A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7. * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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20 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2011 HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES SPACE BIOLOGY Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Radiobiological Factors in Report on NASA Biology Program Physiology in the Space Manned Spaceflight (1967) (1968) (1968) Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 (1968) Space Biology (1970) Radiation Protection Infectious Disease Guides and Life Sciences in Space: Report of in Manned Constraints for the Study to Review NASA Life Spaceflight: Space-Mission and Sciences Programs (1970) Probabilities and Vehicle-Design Countermeasures Countermeasures Studies Involving Studies Involving (1970) Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) Life Beyond the Earth's HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Scientific Uses of the Environment (1979) Spaceflight (1973) Space Shuttle (1974) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) Space Science in the Twenty-First “On the Extended Century: Life Sciences (1988) Duration Orbiter Medical Research Program” (1989) “On Several Issues in the Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Space Life Sciences” Medicine⎯1991 (1991) (1993) (1993) “On Continued Operation of the BEVALAC Facility” (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) “On Peer Review in Radiation Hazards to Crews of “On the Planned National NASA Life Sciences Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues Space Biomedical Research Programs (1995) Programs” (1995) and Research Strategies (1996) and Research Strategies (1996) Institute (1996) Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Review of NASA's Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Biomedical Research Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) and Physical Sciences Research for New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (2011) FIGURE 2.6 SSB-NRC advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2011).

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21 Board and Standing Committees Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in th the Twent -First ty Microgravity Science and Century: Imperatives Applications: Report on a for the Decades Workshop (1986, Board on 1995 to 2015. Physics and Astronomy) Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) "On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program“ (1994) "O th Utili "On the Utilization of the Space Station“ (1994) St Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) "On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report“ (1995) (1996) (1997) "On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station“ (1997) Future Biotechnology Research Research on the Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human International Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Space Station (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Sciences Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (2011) FIGURE 2.7 SSB-NRC advice on microgravity research (1978-2011).