Key Questions

•  How can food security best be measured in order to examine associations with human outcomes?

•  How can the performance of food systems be measured in regard to the health and well-being of both the human and environmental subsystems?

•  How do agriculture and aquaculture affect food security, and how does a lack of food security affect human health, and in turn, agricultural/aquacultural systems?

•  How can food security be made resilient to sudden shocks such as natural or man-made disaster?”


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Bouis HE, Hotz C, and McClafferty BH. Biofortification: A new tool to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2011;32(1):31S-40S(10). [Abstract available.]

Swindale A and Bilinsky P. Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: Process, current status, and outstanding issues. J Nutr 2006;136:1449S–1452S.

Wiesmann D, Hoddinott J, Aberman N-L, and Ruel M. Review and validation of dietary diversity, food frequency and other proxy indicators of household food security. Prepared by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI): Rome, Italy, July 2006.

Wolfe WS and Frongillo EA. Building household food-security measurement tools from the ground up. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2001; 22:5-12.

Wunderlich GS and Norwood JL. Food insecurity and hunger in the United States. An Assessment of the measure. National Academies Press: Washington, D.C., 2006.


•  Sylvie M. Brouder, Purdue University

•  Fabrice A.J. DeClerck, CATIE

•  Peter S. Kettlewell, Harper Adams University College

•  Ashley M. Latta, University of Maryland

•  Emilio F. Moran, Indiana University

•  Seth C. Murray, Texas A&M University/Texas AgriLife Research

•  Thomas L. Rabaey, General Mills Inc.

•  Penny K. Riggs, Texas A&M University

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