services. However, there has not been comparable progress on policies and regulations to address the hidden costs of environmental damage associated with trade in ecosystem services. How can this complex, emerging and serious problem be addressed by policy makers and trade regulation organizations?

Key Questions

•  How can we transparently monitor the full effects on ecosystem services of international trade?

•  What policy instruments are available for accounting for virtual or embodied ecosystem services in international trade?

•  What should be the goal of an international policy for managing virtual or embodied ecosystem services?

•  How could a policy for virtual or embodied ecosystem services be integrated with existing structures that regulate international trade?

•  If policies were established to address virtual or embodied ecosystem services in global trade, how could the effectiveness of those policies be assessed? How should such assessments feed back into the evolution of policies for global trade?


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