services. However, there has not been comparable progress on policies and regulations to address the hidden costs of environmental damage associated with trade in ecosystem services. How can this complex, emerging and serious problem be addressed by policy makers and trade regulation organizations?

Key Questions

•  How can we transparently monitor the full effects on ecosystem services of international trade?

•  What policy instruments are available for accounting for virtual or embodied ecosystem services in international trade?

•  What should be the goal of an international policy for managing virtual or embodied ecosystem services?

•  How could a policy for virtual or embodied ecosystem services be integrated with existing structures that regulate international trade?

•  If policies were established to address virtual or embodied ecosystem services in global trade, how could the effectiveness of those policies be assessed? How should such assessments feed back into the evolution of policies for global trade?

Reading

Burke M, Oleson L, McCullough E, and Gaskell J. A global model tracking water, nitrogen, and land inputs and virtual transfers from industrialized meat production and trade. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 2008;14:179-193.

Galloway JN, Burke M, Bradford GE, Naylor R, Falcon W, Mooney HA, McCullough E, Oleson KLL, McCullough E, and Steinfeld H. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop. AMBIO 2007;36:622-629.

Hoekstra AY and Hung PQ. Globalisation of water resources: international virtual water flows in relation to crop trade. Global Environmental Change 15 2005;15:45-56.

MacDonald GK, Bennett EM, Potter PA, and Ramankutty N. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world’s croplands. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011;108:3086-3091.

Meyfroidt P, Rudel TK, and Lambin EF. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2010;107:20917-20922.

Peters GP and Hertwich EG. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy. Environ Sci Technol 2008;42:1401-1407.



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