R. JULIAN PRESTON, Chair, is the associate director for health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). He also has served as director of the Environmental Carcinogenesis Division at the EPA and as senior science adviser at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology. He has been employed at the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has served as associate director for the Oak Ridge–University of Tennessee Graduate School for Biomedical Sciences. Dr. Preston’s research and current activities have focused on the mechanisms of radiation and chemical carcinogenesis and the approaches for incorporating these types of data into cancer risk assessments. Currently Dr. Preston is chair of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), a member of the ICRP Main Commission, and a member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). He is an associate editor of Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Mutation Research, Chemico-Biological Interactions, and Health Physics. Dr. Preston has had more than 200 peer-reviewed papers and chapters published. He received his B.A. and M.A. from Peterhouse, Cambridge University, England, in genetics and his Ph.D. from Reading University, England, in radiation genetics. He has served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee to Assess the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program and the Task Group on the Biological Effects of Space Radiation.
JOEL S. BEDFORD is a professor of environmental and radiological health sciences and is on the graduate faculty of Cell and Molecular Biology at Colorado State University. He was an associate professor in radiology at Vanderbilt University. He received a D.Phil. degree from Oxford University. Dr. Bedford’s areas of interest and expertise for more than 45 years have been in cellular radiobiology, radiation cytogenetics, radiation genetics, dose-rate effects, and the genetic control of radiosensitivity. During the past decade his research interest has also focused on variations in radiosensitivity related to processes involved in cancer development. His research has been funded continuously by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Energy, or NASA. Dr. Bedford served as a member of the NIH Radiation Study Section and as its chair. He was a member of Grant Review Panel H of the National Cancer Institute of Canada. He was president of the Radiation Research Society and received the Failla Award from that society, as well as the Excellence in Mentoring Award. He has also served as a regular member of other national or international committees such as the NRC’s Board on Radiation Effects Research and the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board. He was a member of the Scientific Council of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and is a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP).
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Appendix B Committee and Staff Biographical Information R. JULIAN PRESTON, Chair, is the associate director for health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). He also has served as director of the Environmental Carcinogenesis Division at the EPA and as senior science adviser at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology. He has been employed at the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has served as associate director for the Oak Ridge–University of Tennessee Graduate School for Biomedical Sciences. Dr. Preston’s research and current activities have focused on the mechanisms of radiation and chemical carcinogenesis and the approaches for incorporating these types of data into cancer risk assessments. Currently Dr. Preston is chair of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), a member of the ICRP Main Commission, and a member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Scientific Commit - tee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). He is an associate editor of Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Mutation Research, Chemico-Biological Interactions, and Health Physics. Dr. Preston has had more than 200 peer-reviewed papers and chapters published. He received his B.A. and M.A. from Peterhouse, Cambridge University, England, in genetics and his Ph.D. from Reading University, England, in radiation genetics. He has served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee to Assess the Scientific Information for the Radia - tion Exposure Screening and Education Program and the Task Group on the Biological Effects of Space Radiation. JOEL S. BEDFORD is a professor of environmental and radiological health sciences and is on the graduate faculty of Cell and Molecular Biology at Colorado State University. He was an associate professor in radiology at Vanderbilt University. He received a D.Phil. degree from Oxford University. Dr. Bedford’s areas of interest and expertise for more than 45 years have been in cellular radiobiology, radiation cytogenetics, radiation genetics, dose-rate effects, and the genetic control of radiosensitivity. During the past decade his research interest has also focused on variations in radiosensitivity related to processes involved in cancer development. His research has been funded continuously by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Energy, or NASA. Dr. Bedford served as a member of the NIH Radiation Study Section and as its chair. He was a member of Grant Review Panel H of the National Cancer Institute of Canada. He was president of the Radiation Research Society and received the Failla Award from that society, as well as the Excellence in Mentoring Award. He has also served as a regular member of other national or international committees such as the NRC’s Board on Radiation Effects Research and the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board. He was a member of the Scientific Council of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and is a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 57
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58 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE NASA MODEL FOR CANCER RISK TO ASTRONAUTS AMY BERRINGTON DE GONZALEZ is an investigator in the Radiation Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and adjunct faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. At NCI, Dr. Berrington de Gonzalez has led the development of the NCI Radiation Risk Assessment Tool, which is inter- active computer software designed to estimate the lifetime risk of cancer (with uncertainty intervals) following complex exposure histories. She has also used this software to conduct a research program projecting cancer risks from a large number of medical exposure scenarios including CT scans, nuclear medicine tests, and mammog - raphy screening. Her research interests include methods to improve radiation risk projection and the conduct of epidemiological studies of cancer risks from both low- and high-dose medical radiation exposures. She has served on the U.K. Health Protection Agency’s Advisory Group on Ionizing Radiation and Solid Cancer, as a special adviser on radiation and health to the World Health Organization, and as a committee member on the U.K. govern - ment’s Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer Screening. She was a member of the organizing committee for the 2009 Conference on Uncertainties in Radiation Dosimetry and Their Impact on Risk Analysis. Dr. Berrington de Gonzalez earned her Ph.D. in radiation epidemiology from the University of Oxford. B. JOHN GARRICK is an independent consultant with Garrick Consulting. He was a co-founder of PLG, Inc., an international engineering, applied science, and management consulting firm, from which he retired as president and chief executive officer. His professional interests include risk assessment in nuclear energy, space and defense, chemicals and petroleum, and transportation. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a past president of the Society for Risk Analysis and has received the society’s Distinguished Achievement Award. Dr. Garrick was appointed to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and served for 10 years, 4 years as chair. President George W. Bush appointed Dr. Garrick to the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board with the designation of chairman in 2004. Dr. Garrick received his B.S. in physics from Brigham Young University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in engineering and applied science from the University of California, Los Angeles. He is also a graduate of the Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology. He served on many NRC committees, including several associated with the space program. DUDLEY T. GOODHEAD is retired from the Medical Research Council’s (MRC’s) Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, United Kingdom, where he served as director. The Genome Stability Unit carried out basic research on the relationship of genome stability to human health, including how DNA may be damaged by radiation and other agents and how the cellular repair systems act to restore normality. Dr. Goodhead continues as a visitor at MRC Harwell and assists the European Commission’s research program as well as a number of agen - cies in the United States and the United Kingdom. His research has been mainly on the biophysics of radiation effects, with particular emphasis on microscopic features of radiation track structure at the atomic, molecular, and cellular levels and their consequent radiobiological and health effects. He has held positions at the University of California, Los Angeles; St. Bartholomew’s, London; and Natal, as well as the Radiobiology Unit at MRC Harwell. Dr. Goodhead has served on a variety of national and international committees on the evaluation of radiation risks, including the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment in the United Kingdom; consultan - cies to UNSCEAR and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and working groups of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (on carcinogenic risk of gamma rays, neutrons, and internally deposited radio - nuclides) and the Royal Society (on risks from depleted uranium). He was chair of the Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters in the United Kingdom until its final report. In the Queen’s Birthday Honours List, Dr. Goodhead was awarded the Order of the British Empire for services to medical research. He has been the recipient of various other awards, including the Weiss Medal from the Association for Radiation Research, the Failla Medal from the Radiation Research Society, the Douglas Lea Lecturer from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and Biology, the Bacq and Alexander Award from the European Society of Radiation Biology, an Honorary Fellowship of the Society of Radiological Protection, the Warren K. Sinclair Lecturer from the NCRP, and the Gray Medal (August 2011) from the International Committee on Radiation Units and Measure - ments. He earned his D.Phil. in particle physics at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom. He served on the NRC Committee on Health Risks of Exposure to Radon (BEIR VI), Phase II.
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59 APPENDIX B BERNARD A. HARRIS, JR., is currently the chief executive officer and managing director of Vesalius Ventures, Inc., a venture capital firm that invests in early- to mid-stage health care technology companies, particularly in the area of telemedicine. Prior to joining Vesalius Ventures, Dr. Harris was at NASA for 10 years, where he conducted research in musculoskeletal physiology and clinical investigations of space adaptation and developed in-flight medical devices to extend astronaut stays in space. A veteran astronaut for more than 18 years, he has logged more than 438 hours and traveled over 7.2 million miles in space. He holds several faculty appointments, including those of associate professor in internal medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch and assistant professor at Baylor College of Medicine. Additionally, he is the author and co-author of numerous scientific publications. Currently, Dr. Harris serves on the board for the Houston Angel Network, the Houston Technology Center, BioHouston, SCORE, and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute’s board of scientific counselors. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including honorary doctorates from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, the Morehouse School of Medicine, and the University of Hartford. He has been awarded two NASA Space Flight Medals and the NASA Award of Merit. Dr. Harris is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and was the recipient of the 2000 Horatio Alger Award. He earned a B.S. in biology from the University of Houston, an M.S. from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, an M.B.A. from the University of Houston, and an M.D. from Texas Tech University School of Medi- cine. He has served on the NRC Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments and the the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine During Travel Beyond Earth Orbit. KATHRYN D. HELD is an associate radiation biologist in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and an associate professor of radiation oncology (radiation biology) at Harvard Medi - cal School (HMS). At MGH, Dr. Held leads a team that is involved in research on molecular mechanisms for the induction of bystander effects by high-energy particles in cells and tissues, characterization of proton-beam-induced DNA damage responses, the development of a cancer screening platform for personalized radiation medicine, mechanisms for the regulation of DNA damage response by cell-cell communication (NCI Federal Share-funded), and the development of novel agents for mitigation of radiation-induced pulmonary injury (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID]-funded). Dr. Held also teaches radiation biology to radiation oncology medical and physics residents and graduate students. She has served on review panels for numerous federal agen - cies including NIH, NASA, and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. She is currently the past president of the Radiation Research Society and serves on the board of directors of the NCRP, having served as chair of the program committee for the 2011 Annual Meeting of the NCRP on Scientific and Policy Challenges of Particle Radiations in Medical Therapy and Space Missions. Dr. Held earned her Ph.D. in biology from the University of Texas, Austin. DAVID G. HOEL is a distinguished university professor in the Department of Medicine at the Medical Univer- sity of South Carolina. He also is a principal scientist at Exponent, Inc. Dr. Hoel was at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of NIH for more than 20 years as director of the Division of Environmental Risk Assessment, which was responsible for developing methods for quantitatively estimating health risks from low- dose chemical exposures. He has particular interest in estimating the health effects of radiation exposures and has spent a total of 3 years working at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, as one of the program directors. His current research is focused on low-dose adverse health effects of gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation as well as plutonium in particular. His research support has included a 5-year project on the analysis of the potential health risks from high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for NASA. International committees on which Dr. Hoel has served include a radiation exposure advisory committee for the IAEA and the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He earned a B.A. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and completed postdoctoral training in preventive medicine from Stanford University. Dr. Hoel has served on the NRC Committee on Evaluation of Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration and the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board.
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60 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE NASA MODEL FOR CANCER RISK TO ASTRONAUTS JACK R. JOKIPII is a Regents’ Professor in the Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Labora- tory at the University of Arizona. His research in the areas of theoretical astrophysics and space physics is primarily related to the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays and energetic particles in the solar wind and in the Galaxy. Dr. Jokipii and his research group have been guest investigators on several NASA missions and specialize in theo - retical interpretation and modeling of the observations. Specifically, Dr. Jokipii’s group is currently in the midst of an extensive program of theoretical research to study the mutual interactions of shock waves, turbulence, and energetic particles. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a lifetime associate of the National Research Council. He received his B.S. from the University of Michigan and his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He currently serves on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics and is chair of the Panel Review Board of the NRC Policy and Global Affairs Division’s Associateship Program. INSOO JUN is a principal scientist and the technical group supervisor of the Mission Environments Group for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. Previously he worked with the Fusion Engineering Group at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and with the Hughes Space and Com - munications Company. His experience includes the modeling of planetary and interplanetary space environments (radiation, meteoroid, and plasma, etc.) and their impact analyses on spacecraft systems and components, as well as interactions with bodies in the solar system. Dr. Jun’s main interests are in the computational physics of space radiation interactions with materials (spacecraft structure, planetary atmospheres, or surface materials, etc.) using Monte Carlo and deterministic radiation transport tools. His expertise also includes nuclear instrumentation, simulation of spaceborne instruments or detectors, and data reduction and analysis. Dr. Jun has received several awards, including various NASA achievement awards. He is also a member of the American Geophysical Union. He received his B.S. in nuclear engineering from the University of Massachusetts and his M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical, aerospace, and nuclear engineering from UCLA. CHARLES E. LAND retired as senior investigator in the Division of Epidemiology and Genetics following more than 30 years at the National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch. He is a statistician who has specialized in the epidemiology of radiation-related cancer risk in exposed populations. He became interested in the topic during a 2-year tour with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and returned for another tour after teaching statistics for 5 years at Oregon State University. Dr. Land served on a number of expert committees concerned with radiation-related cancer risk, including the NIH Ad Hoc Working Group to Develop Radioepidemiological Tables and the NCI-CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] Working Group, which updated the tables with an interactive computer program to determine the attributability of a given cancer diagnosis to a given history of radiation exposure. After 24 years on the NCRP, he retired as a Distinguished Emeritus Member and presented the 2010 Lauriston Taylor Lecture. Dr. Land served for 20 years on Committee 1, on Risk, of the International Commission on Radiation Protection, chairing the working group that produced ICRP Report 99, on low-dose extrapolation of radiation-related cancer risk. At present he serves on an UNSCEAR working group dealing with uncertainty in radiation-related risk estimation. Dr. Land received his B.A. from the University of Oregon and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He served on the NRC’s Committee on NASA’s Research on Human Health Risks, the Committee on Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, and the Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. HANS-GEORG MENZEL is currently an honorary staff member of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva, Switzerland. His professional career began at the European Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, and continued at the German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany, and at the University of Saarland, Germany. Previously, he worked as scientific program manager at the European Commission in Brussels, Belgium, and was then appointed the head of the Radiation Protection Group at CERN. His main research activities are in the fields of dosimetry and microdosimetry of high-energy radiation, basic nuclear data and instrumentation for dosimetry and applications for high-LET radiation therapy, radiation protection, medical physics, and radiation biology. Dr. Menzel has been teaching physics and medical physics at the University of Saarland and has been
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61 APPENDIX B a member of the physics and medical faculty of Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. Currently he is the chair of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), chair of Committee 2, and member of the Main Commission of the ICRP. Dr. Menzel has served on numerous international scientific com - mittees of the ICRU, the ICRP, the IAEA, and the European Commission. More recently, he was a co-chair of an ICRU report on cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew, and he is currently a member of an ICRP Task Group on Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space. Dr. Menzel was the William G. Morgan Lecturer of the Health Physics Society. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Saarland. PETER O’NEILL is a professor of radiation biology and the deputy director and head of the DNA Damage Group at the Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a chartered chemist. His research focuses on the chemistry of the types of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, from the early free-radical processes to the complexities of damage, and how these may contribute to carcinogenesis or radiation cytotoxicity. More recently his major research inter - ests have focused on understanding the challenges that radiation-induced clustered DNA damage sites present to the repair pathways and, as a consequence, contribute to carcinogenesis at environmental radiation levels or to the killing of tumor cells. Among the several grants that he holds, he is funded through the Department of Energy/ NASA low-dose radiation program. Dr. O’Neill is currently the president of the North American Radiation Research Society. He received the Weiss Medal for his contributions to radiation biology and the health effects of ionizing radiation. He was awarded his B.Sc. in chemistry and Ph.D. from the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. At present he serves as a member of the Topical Team IBER for the European Space Agency to review and update scientific knowledge in space radiation biology and dosimetry and is a member of the EU MELODI Group devel - oping the Strategic Research Agenda for Radiation Protection Program for the next 20 to 30 years. He is or has been a member on several Research Council committees in the United Kingdom. Staff SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director, has been a senior program officer at the National Research Council’s Space Studies Board (SSB) since 1994. During that time Dr. Graham has directed a large number of major studies, many of them focused on space research in biological and physical sciences and technology. More recent studies include an assessment of servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, a study of the societal impacts of severe space weather, and a review of NASA’s Space Communications Program while she was on loan to the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). Prior to joining the SSB, Dr. Graham held the position of senior scientist at the Bionetics Corporation, where she provided technical and science management support for NASA’s Microgravity Science and Applications Division. She received her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Duke University, where her research focused primarily on topics in bioinorganic chemistry, such as rate modeling and reaction chemistry of biological metal complexes and their analogs. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, editor, joined the Space Studies Board as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. AMANDA R. THIBAULT, research associate, joined the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board in 2011. Ms. Thibault is a graduate of Creighton University where she earned her B.S. in atmospheric science in 2008. From there she went on to Texas Tech University where she studied lightning trends in tornadic and non-tornadic supercell thunderstorms and worked as a teaching and research assistant. She participated in the VORTEX 2 field project from 2009-2010 and graduated with a M.S. in atmospheric science from Texas Tech in August 2010. She is a member of the American Meteorological Society.
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62 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE NASA MODEL FOR CANCER RISK TO ASTRONAUTS RODNEY N. HOWARD joined the Space Studies Board as a senior project assistant in 2002. Before joining SSB, most of his vocational life was spent in the health profession as a pharmacy technologist at Doctor’s Hospital in Lanham, Maryland, and as an interim center administrator at the Concentra Medical Center in Jessup, Maryland. During that time, he participated in a number of Quality Circle Initiatives that were designed to improve rela - tions between management and staff. Mr. Howard obtained his B.A. in communications from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, in 1983. MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the Space Studies Board and the Aeronautics and Space Engineer- ing Board at the National Research Council. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in April 2010, he was the associate director of the BPA and study director for the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In addition to his professional experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experience as a Foreign Service officer for the Irish government and served in that capacity at the Embassy of Ireland in Washington, D.C., the Mission of Ireland to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin, Ireland. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his graduate Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.