discussed nutrition screening versus assessment, challenges associated with screening, determinants of nutritional risk, and uses for nutrition screens.
Nutrition Screening Versus Assessment
Sharkey began by clarifying the difference between nutrition screening and assessment. Screening is used to identify characteristics associated with dietary or nutrition problems, and to differentiate those at high risk for nutrition problems who should be referred for further assessment or counseling. Assessment is a measurement of dietary or nutrition-related indicators, such as body mass index or nutrient intake, used to identify the presence, nature, and extent of impaired nutritional status. This information is used to develop an intervention for providing nutritional care.
Sharkey presented the pathway from the presence of a health condition, to impairment, functional limitations, disability, and adverse outcomes (Nagi, 1976; Verbrugge and Jette, 1994) and noted the role that nutrition and screening could play throughout that progression in preventing advancement to the next stage. Additional reasons for conducting nutrition screening are listed in Box 2-1.
Who Should Be Screened?
In the past, the only people screened were nutrition program participants and those seeking nutrition services. “Is that enough,” asked Sharkey, “or should screening be used more broadly to identify and pre-empt some individuals’ needs?” While screening people in the community may iden-
Reasons for Conducting Nutrition Screening
• Determine potential need/demand for community programs
• Prioritize services
• Define short- and long-term outcomes
• Identity or develop interventions
• Prepare nutrition care plans
• Make referrals
• Build basis tor additional funding
• Engage community partners
SOURCE: Sharkey, 2011.