image


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 156
Crisis Standards of Care A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response EMS

OCR for page 156
Crisis Standards of Care A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response Volume 3: EMS Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations Board on Health Sciences Policy Dan Hanfling, Bruce M. Altevogt, Kristin Viswanathan, and Lawrence O. Gostin, Editors

OCR for page 156
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. HHSP23320042509XI between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Crisis standards of care : a systems framework for catastrophic disaster response / Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, Board on Health Sciences Policy ; Dan Hanfling ... [et al.], editors. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-309-25346-8 (hardcover) — ISBN 978-0-309-25347-5 (pdf ) I. Hanfling, Dan. II. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. [DNLM: 1. Disaster Medicine—standards—United States. 2. Emergency Medical Services—standards—United States. 3. Emergency Treatment— standards—United States. WA 295] 363.34—dc23 2012016602 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carv- ing from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2012. Crisis Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Cata- strophic Disaster Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

OCR for page 156
“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

OCR for page 156
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sci- ences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page 156
COMMITTEE ON GUIDANCE FOR ESTABLISHING STANDARDS OF CARE FOR USE IN DISASTER SITUATIONS LAWRENCE O. GOSTIN (Chair), O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC DAN HANFLING (Vice-Chair), Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA DAMON T. ARNOLD, Illinois Department of Public Health, Chicago (retired) STEPHEN V. CANTRILL, Denver Health Medical Center, CO BROOKE COURTNEY, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD ASHA DEVEREAUX, California Thoracic Society, San Francisco, CA EDWARD J. GABRIEL,* The Walt Disney Company, Burbank, CA JOHN L. HICK, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN JAMES G. HODGE, JR., Center for the Study of Law, Science, and Technology, Arizona State University, Tempe DONNA E. LEVIN, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston MARIANNE MATZO, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City CHERYL A. PETERSON, American Nurses Association, Silver Spring, MD TIA POWELL, Montefiore-Einstein Center for Bioethics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY MERRITT SCHREIBER, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine UMAIR A. SHAH, Harris County Public Health and Environmental Services, Houston, TX JOLENE R. WHITNEY, Bureau of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Preparedness, Utah Department of Health, Salt Lake City Study Staff BRUCE M. ALTEVOGT, Study Director ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy CLARE STROUD, Program Officer LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant (until January 2012) ELIZABETH THOMAS, Senior Project Assistant (since February 2012) KRISTIN VISWANATHAN, Research Associate RONA BRIER, Editor BARBARA FAIN, Consultant for Public Engagement * Resigned from the committee October 2011. v

OCR for page 156

OCR for page 156
Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and techni- cal expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard Alcorta, Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems Knox Andress, Louisiana Poison Center Connie Boatright-Royster, MESH Coalition Susan Cooper, Tennessee Department of Health Lance Gable, Wayne State University Center for Law and the Public’s Health Carol Jacobson, Ohio Hospital Association Amy Kaji, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Jon Krohmer, Department of Homeland Security Onora Lien, King County Healthcare Coalition Suzet McKinney, The Tauri Group Peter Pons, Denver Health Medical Center Clifford Rees, University of New Mexico School of Law Linda Scott, Michigan Department of Community Health Robert Ursano, Uniformed Services University School of Medicine Lann Wilder, San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center Matthew Wynia, American Medical Association Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before vii

OCR for page 156
its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Georges Benjamin, American Public Health Asso- ciation. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. viii REVIEWERS

OCR for page 156
Contents VOLUME 1: INTRODUCTION AND CSC FRAMEWORK Summary 1-1 1 Introduction 1-15 2 Catastrophic Disaster Response: Creating a Framework for Medical Care Delivery 1-31 3 Legal Issues 1-55 4 Cross-Cutting Issues: Ethics, Palliative Care, and Mental Health 1-71 VOLUME 2: STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT 5 State and Local Governments 2-1 VOLUME 3: EMS Acronyms xi 6 Prehospital Care: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) 3-1 Roles and Responsibilities of Emergency Medical Services, 3-1 Operational Considerations, 3-8 Template Descriptions, 3-12 Template 6.1. Core Functions of EMS Systems in the Development of State Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) Plans, 3-23 Template 6.2. Core Functions of EMS Systems and EMS Personnel in the Implementation of CSC Plans, 3-29 References, 3-41 Additional Resources, 3-43 ix

OCR for page 156
VOLUME 4: HOSPITAL 7 Hospitals and Acute Care Facilities 4-1 VOLUME 5: ALTERNATE CARE SYSTEMS 8 Out-of-Hospital and Alternate Care Systems 5-1 VOLUME 6: PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT 9 Public Engagement 6-1 VOLUME 7: APPENDIXES 7-1 Appendixes x CONTENTS

OCR for page 156
Mental Health State Task 1 State EMS office participates in a rapid mental health triage/incident Refer to the mental management system linking local, regional, and state disaster systems health section of of care, including health care facilities and mental health resources, in Chapter 4 for a ICS operations. more a detailed list of functions and State Task 2 discussion of examples. State EMS office provides for access to a continuum of evidence-based mental health interventions for adults and children. Regional/Local Task 3 Regional infrastructure and local public and private EMS agencies provide training in basic “neighbor-to-neighbor, family-to-family” psychological first aid for the general public and health care workers that includes triage. Region/Local Task 4 Regional infrastructure and local public and private EMS agencies provide CSC-specific behavioral coping components in risk communications. State and Regional/Local Task 5 All stakeholders complete a CSC gap analysis with plan to enhance local disaster mental health and spiritual care capacities and capabilities. Regional/Local Task 6 Regional infrastructure and local public and private EMS agencies develop a health care worker resilience system with integrated triage and referral components. Palliative Care State Task 1 State EMS office, with medical direction, defines the role of EMS Refer to the palliative personnel in providing symptomatic management for patients needing care section of Chapter palliative care and provides the necessary training and resources. 4 for additional information. State Task 2 With palliative care experts, state EMS office provides just-in-time training that may be appropriate for EMS personnel, especially in a sustained CSC incident. Regional/Local Task 3 State and local medical directors address palliative care, if appropriate, in the emergency operations plan, including triage tools and any agency-specific protocols or policies (which are approved by medical directors at the state or agency level). 3-34 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE

OCR for page 156
Function 9. Logistics Notes and Resources Staffing Resources State and Regional/Local Task 1 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS providers Refer to NDMS and understand available staffing resources within jurisdictions and utilize EMAC websites. established processes for requesting and allocating the workforce (Medical Reserve Corps [MRC], Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals [ESAR-VHP], state strike teams, NDMS teams, military/National Guard personnel, including ambulances). State and Regional/Local Task 2 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS agencies utilize a resource monitoring system to track staffing resources and understand when to activate mutual-aid agreements or alternative staffing patterns. State and Regional/Local Task 3 All stakeholders ensure that call-back criteria and policies are in place, including maintenance of current and accurate employee contact information. State and Regional/Local Task 4 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS providers have the capability to assess the number of staff available for large-scale incidents. State and Regional/Local Task 5 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS providers ensure that staff receive personal preparedness training to assist with family needs and are prepared for on-site accommodation of staff and family members, as appropriate. Transportation and Equipment Resources State and Regional/Local Task 1 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS agencies conduct an assessment of the types and location of EMS transportation and equipment resources available within the state and know how to request resources from other jurisdictions (through EMAC, the federal ambulance contract, medication caches, equipment trailers). State and Regional/Local Task 2 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS agencies, with medical direction, identify strategies for appropriate substitution, conservation, adaptation, reuse, and reallocation of scarce equipment and supplies. State/Regional/Local Task 3 State EMS office, regional EMS infrastructure, and local EMS agencies utilize a resource tracking or deployment system to monitor the availability of ambulances and understand when to engage other modes of patient transportation. PREHOSPITAL CARE 3-35

OCR for page 156
Space State and Regional/Local Task 1 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS providers Refer to Maryland understand when to initiate plans to transport patients to alternate care emergency medical sites and the processes for requesting and allocating such space. dispatch (EMD) protocol. State and Regional/Local Task 2 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, and local EMS providers are able to recognize when to activate alternate call centers (such as 211 or nurse triage centers) to provide information to the public. Regional/Local Task 3 Regional infrastructure and local EMS providers understand when to initiate treat-and-release protocols and processes approved by state and agency medical directors. Regional/Local Task 4 Regional infrastructure and local EMS providers identify regional staging areas for use when major mutual aid will be required but specific assignments are not yet available, and understand support requirements for those sites. PSAPs and Call Centers Task 5 PSAPs, regional call centers, and dispatch centers understand when to utilize CSC dispatch protocols and alter resource assignments. Special Populations State and Regional/Local Task 1 State EMS office, regional infrastructure, local EMS providers, Refer to the Pediatric and medical directors identify patient groups requiring special Emergency Mass consideration with respect to transportation, treatment, equipment, and Critical Care Task Force supplies. supplement (Task Force for Pediatric State and Regional/Local Task 2 Emergency Mass Local EMS personnel are trained and exercised in managing special Critical Care, 2011). The populations, including pediatric, burn, elderly, and non–English- full-text articles are speaking patients, and purchase and stockpile tools, equipment, and available free of charge supplies to address special-population needs. on the Pediatric Critical Care Medicine website. Function 10. Planning Notes and Resources Disaster Medical Advisory Committee State Task 1 State EMS office understands how to interface with incident command, Refer to SDMAC in particular the planning section and planning cycle, as well as how to charter and state CSC interface with the SDMAC, its role in activating the CSC plan, and other plan. strategies. State and Regional/Local Task 2 Technical specialists and medical directors understand their interface with command and planning sections. 3-36 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE

OCR for page 156
Personnel Management State and Regional/Local Task 1 In collaboration with existing regional structures, state and local Refer to information on EMS agencies establish policies and procedures to integrate external the MRC, ESAR-VHP, staffing resources (MRC, ESAR-VHP, state strike teams, disaster medical NDMS, and EMAC on assistance team [DMAT]) during a disaster based on mutual-aid the ASPR and FEMA agreements, EMAC, the NDMS plan, emergency operations plan, and websites. appropriate annexes. State and Regional/Local Task 2 In collaboration with existing regional structures, state and local EMS agencies develop an educational program and materials to orient external staffing resources on local, regional, and state triage and treatment policies and applicable elements of the state CSC plan. State and Regional/Local Task 3 State and local EMS providers develop policies for personnel management, such as altered staffing configurations, shift lengths, and staff roles, and address any collective bargaining issues that may arise prior to an incident. State and Regional/Local Task 4 Need for nonmedical assistance for families, volunteers, and external staffing resources is addressed within the emergency operations plan. Function 11. Jurisdiction, Scope, Authority, and Legal/Regulatory Issues Notes and Resources State and Regional/Local Task 1 State EMS office and EMS providers examine the scope and delegation Refer to state and local of authority to incident commanders during a disaster and make any legal counsel. necessary changes to ensure that CSC decisions are supported (i.e., that the incident commander is acting with the authority of the agency/ jurisdiction). During a crisis, policy makers may require additional communications and coordination with the incident commander. State and Regional/Local Task 2 State EMS officials understand the impact of the CSC plan on the Refer to Chapter 2 for provision of patient care within the appropriate jurisdiction, understand a detailed discussion of state and local laws and regulations that would impact the response legal functions. organizations’ ability to implement CSC, and identify possible solutions. EMS Personnel Functions Function 1. Notification Task 1 EMS personnel understand call-back roles and responsibilities during an incident, including potential roles that may vary from routine, such as ICS positions. PREHOSPITAL CARE 3-37

OCR for page 156
Task 2 EMS personnel ensure up-to-date contact information. Exercises in incident messaging are conducted. Function 2. Command, Control, Communications, Coordination Task 1 EMS personnel understand where they report and to whom they answer during a disaster and how to execute their roles. Task 2 EMS personnel understand how to contact and request resources from dispatch and/or EMS command personnel. Task 3 EMS personnel undergo training and exercising in their appropriate role in the command structure, including • nowledge of plans, resources, and actions for the full continuum k of care in their jurisdiction, such as use of triage protocols, alternative resources, and staffing; and • nderstanding and use of appropriate job action aids to u guide decisions and activities based on applicable emergency operations plans. Task 4 EMS personnel understand and are able to use interoperable communications and backup systems. Function 3. Public Information Task 1 EMS personnel know of all potential sources of information in a disaster and key contacts within each (web, Twitter, hotline, etc.). Function 4. Operations Task 1 EMS personnel understand how to utilize the resource management system and assess the need to expand from conventional to crisis care and activate the CSC plan. Task 2 EMS personnel understand when and how to apply disaster triage protocols, the EMS pandemic influenza plan, and mass casualty plans, if available. Task 3 EMS personnel understand when to activate mutual-aid agreements, the emergency operations center, and the emergency operations plan. 3-38 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE

OCR for page 156
Task 4 EMS personnel undergo training and exercising in their ICS role and are able to function within the unified command or multiagency command ICS structure. Function 5. Logistics Communications Task 1 EMS personnel understand how to utilize interoperable communications systems, backup communications systems, the patient tracking system, and the incident/resource management system (web-based and/or hard copy). Staffing Task 1 EMS personnel understand how staffing and hours may change during a disaster. Task 2 EMS personnel understand how role may be changed/expanded (scope of practice) during crisis, including integration of staffing resources from other jurisdictions. Task 3 EMS personnel understand how changes in record keeping and other duties may occur in crisis situations (e.g., where to find and how to use paper forms). Task 4 EMS personnel are aware of changes to treat-and-release protocols. Transportation, Equipment, and Supplies Task 1 EMS personnel understand how to access supply caches and trailers from other jurisdictions. Task 2 EMS personnel understand what to do in case of shortages when crisis plans are in place (shelter in place, reuse supplies, use alternative modes of transportation). Function 6. Mental Health Notes and Resources Task 1 EMS personnel understand how to access local mental health and The mental health employee support resources, including any incident-specific mental section of Chapter 4 health information or resources. provides a more PREHOSPITAL CARE 3-39

OCR for page 156
Task 2 detailed discussion of EMS personnel are aware of the site-based mental health triage system functions. in place for at-risk patients and coworkers and for self-triage. Task 3 EMS personnel are trained in psychological first aid and integrated, evidence based mental health triage techniques. Function 7. Legal Issues Notes and Resources Task 1 EMS personnel understand their legal obligations and liabilities in Chapter 3 describes providing crisis care in the ambulance and in alternate patient care legal issues in depth. settings when • disaster or public health emergency is declared; a • disaster or public health emergency has not been declared; a and • hey have other disaster relief functions (for example, serving as t an MRC or DMAT member). 3-40 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE

OCR for page 156
REFERENCES ACEP (American College of Emergency Physicians). 2005. Principles of EMS systems, 3rd ed., edited by J. A. Brennan and J. R. Krohmer. Irving, TX: ACEP. ACS (American College of Surgeons). 2006. Resources for optimal care of the injured patient. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons. AHRQ (Agency for Health Research and Quality). 2009a. Disaster alternate care facilities: selection and operation. Publication no. 09-0062. Rockville, MD: AHRQ, http://archive.ahrq.gov/prep/acfselection/dacfreport.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). AHRQ. 2009b. Recommendations for a national mass patient and evacuee movement, regulating, and tracking system. http:// archive.ahrq.gov/prep/natlsystem/natlsys.pdf (accessed February 27, 2012). Alcorta, R. 2011. Crisis standards of care for EMS: State level implementation. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Estab- lishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, Washington, DC. Bisson, J. I., P. L. Jenkins, J. Alexander, and C. Bannister. 1997. Randomized controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims of acute burn trauma. British Journal of Psychiatry 171:78-81. Bisson, J. I., M. Brayne, F. M. Ochberg, and G. S. Everly. 2007. Early psychosocial intervention following traumatic events. American Journal of Psychiatry 164(7):1016-1019. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2009. TIIDE Project 2009 annual report. Terrorism injuries: Information, dis- semination and exchange. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=terrorism%20injuries%3A%20information%2C%20 dissemination%20and%20exchange%20and%20annual%20report%202009&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC EQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.acep.org%2FWorkArea%2Flinkit.aspx%3FLinkIdentifier%3Did%26Item ID%3D48532%26libID%3D48561&ei=1hpMT_XOD-b30gG3w8WHDg&usg=AFQjCNGpcUBNId3b5CW2L77 WtL71IKL52Q&cad=rja (accessed February 27. 2012). Courtney, B., R. Morhard, N. Bouri, and A. Cicero. 2010. Expanding practitioner scopes of practice during public health emergencies: Experiences from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination efforts. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 8(3):223-231. DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation). 2007. Preparing for pandemic influenza: Recommendations for protocol development for 9-1-1 personnel and public safety answering points (PSAPs). Washington, DC: DOT, http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/ injury/ems/pandemicinfluenza/PDFs/Task%206.1.4.2Lo.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2009. Operational considerations during pandemic events: A guide for state, territorial, local and tribal governments ( Version 0.01) ( July 13, 2009). Washington, DC: FEMA, http://www.google.com/ url?sa=t&rct=j&q=operational%20considerations%20during%20pandemic%20events%3A%20a%20guide%20for%20 state%2C%20territorial%2C%20local%20and%20tribal%20governments&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCEQFjAA&ur l=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nasemso.org%2FProjects%2FDomesticPreparedness%2Fdocuments%2FCPG70420090713. doc&ei=ALBNT9nAH-rb0QHSooH-Ag&usg=AFQjCNGQfF3VkbyX3oCVZfqfbKClseAdyA&cad=rja (accessed February 28, 2012). FEMA. 2012. Public information overview: Joint information center. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security, http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/PublicInformation.shtm (accessed February 24, 2012). Hennepin County. 2009. Pandemic influenza appendix. Minneapolis, MN: Hennepin County EMS Council, http://www. hcmc.org/education/ems/documents/Pandemic_Influenza_Appendix_Approved_4-9-09.pdf (accessed February 24, 2012). HHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 2007. Medical surge capacity and capability: A management system for inte- grating medical and health resources during large-scale emergencies, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: HHS. HHS. 2009. Medical surge capacity and capability: The healthcare coalition in emergency response and recovery. Washington, DC: HHS, http://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/mscc/healthcarecoalition/Pages/default.aspx (accessed February 27, 2012). HHS. 2011. START adult triage algorithm, Washington, DC: HHS, http://www.remm.nlm.gov/startadult.htm (accessed Feb- ruary 27, 2012). HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration). 2006. Model trauma system planning and evaluation. http://www. ncdhhs.gov/dhsr/ems/trauma/pdf/hrsatraumamodel.pdf (accessed March 4, 2012). PREHOSPITAL CARE 3-41

OCR for page 156
IASC (Inter-Agency Standing Committee). 2007. IASC guidelines on mental health and psychological support in emergency set- tings. Geneva, Switzerland: IASC. IOM (Institute of Medicine). Emergency medical services: At the crossroads (future of emergency care). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2009a. Guidance for establishing crisis standards of care for use in disaster situations: A letter report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2009b. Crisis standards of care: Summary of a workshop series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2011. P reparedness and response to a rural mass casualty incident: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Lerner, E. B., D. C. Cone, E. S. Weinstein, R. B. Schwartz, P. L. Coule, M. Cronin, I. S. Wedmore, E. M. Bulger, D. A. Mulligan, R. E. Swienton, S. M. Sasser, U. A. Shah, L. J. Weireter Jr., T. L. Sanddal, J. Lariet, D. Markenson, L. Romig, G. Lord, J. Salomone, R. O’Connor, and R. C. Hunt. 2011. Mass casualty triage: An evaluation of the science and refine- ment of a national guideline. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 5(2): 129-137. McNally, R. J., R. A. Bryant, and A. Ehlers. 2003. Does early psychological intervention promote recovery from posttraumatic stress? Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4(2):45-79. NASEMSO (National Association of State EMS Officials). 2004. State EMS rural needs survey. Falls Church, VA: NASEMSO, http://nasemso.org/Projects/RuralEMS/documents/RuralNeedsSurvey2004.pdf (accessed February 27, 2012). NASEMSO. 2011a. National EMS Assessment. Falls Church, VA: NASEMSO, http://ems.gov/pdf/2011/National_EMS_ Assessment_Final_Draft_12202011.pdf (accessed February 27, 2012). NASEMSO. 2011b. EMS Incident Response and Readiness Assessment (EIRRA). A self-assessment tool to measure the level of EMS preparedness for responding to a highway mass casualty incident or other large scale emergency. NASEMSO High Mass Casualty Readiness Project. http://www.ems.gov/pdf/2011/July2011/8-EMS.Incident.Response-Readiness.Assessment.(EIRRA). pdf (accessed March 4, 2012). National Academies of Emergency Dispatch. 2009. Pandemic Flu and Protocol 36. http://www.emergencydispatch.org/sites/ default/files/downloads/flu/AUE%20CC%2036.pdf (accessed February 27, 2012). National Expert Panel on Field Triage. 2012. Guidelines for field triage of injured patlents: Recommendations of the national expert panel on field triage, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 61(1):1-21, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/ rr6101.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). 1996. EMS agenda for the future. http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/ outreach/traftech/pub/tt134.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). NHTSA. 2000. Emergency medical services: Education agenda for the future: A systems approach. http://www.nhtsa.gov/ people/injury/ems/EdAgenda/final/ (accessed February 27, 2012). NHTSA. 2012. What is EMS? Washington, DC: NHTSA, http://www.ems.gov/emssystem/whatisems.html (accessed February 13, 2012). NHTSA (U.S. Department of Transportation). 2007a. EMS pandemic influenza guidelines for statewide adoption. Washington, DC: NHTSA, http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/ems/PandemicInfluenzaGuidelines/ (accessed February 27, 2012). NHTSA. 2007b. State emergency medical services systems: A model. Washington, DC: NHTSA, http://www.nasemso.org/ documents/modelplandraft_12-31-07_model_document.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health). 2002. Mental health and mass violence: Evidence-based early psychological inter- vention for victims/survivors of mass violence. A workshop to reach consensus on best practices. NIH publication no. 02-5138, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force. 2011. Supplement, Deliberations and recommendations of The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force 6. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 12(November 2011 supplement):S103-S179. Romig, L. E. 2011. The JumpSTART Pediatric MCI Triage Tool and other pediatric disaster and emergency medicine resources. http://www.jumpstarttriage.com/ (accessed February 27, 2012). Ruggiero, K. J., H. S. Resnick, R. Acierno, S. F. Coffey, M. J. Carpenter, A. M. Ruscio, R. S. Stephens, D. G. Kilpatrick, P. R. Stasiewicz, R. A. Roffman, M. Bucuvalas, and S. Galea. 2006. Internet-based intervention for mental health and substance use problems in disaster-affected populations: A pilot feasibility study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 37(2):190-205. San Francisco Emergency Medical Services Agency. 2011. Glossary: Definition of Supportive Care. San Francisco, CA: City and County of San Francisco Department of Emergency Management, http://www.sfdem.org/Modules/Show Document.aspx?documentid=794 (accessed February 8, 2012). 3-42 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE

OCR for page 156
Schreiber, M., and S. Shields. 2012. Anticipate, Plan, and Deter: Building resilience in emergency health responders. Pre- sented at the 2012 NACCHO (National Association of City and County Health Officials) Public Health Preparedness Summit, Anaheim, California. Schreiber, M., B. Pfefferbaum, L. Sayegh, and J. Coady. In press. The way forward: The national children’s disaster mental health concept of operations. Disaster Medicine and Public Health. State of Michigan. 2012. Ethical Guidelines for Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources and Services during Public Health Emergen- cies in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Department of Community Health, Office of Public Health Preparedness. Whitney, J. R., S. Werner, S. Wilson, N. Sanddal, V. Conditt, P. Sale, C. Mann, J. Nemec, J. J. Jones, G. Sandeno, and D. Hartford. 2010. Rural trauma and emergency medical service challenges in a sample of Western States. Journal of Trauma Nursing 17(3):158-162. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES AHRQ (Agency for Health Research and Quality). 2003. Surge capacity assessments and regionalization issues: Web conference. http://archive.ahrq.gov/news/ulp/surge/ (accessed February 27, 2012). AHRQ. 2005. Altered standards of care in mass casualty events: Bioterrorism and other public health emergencies. Washington DC: AHRQ. AHRQ. 2011a. Mass medical care with scarce resources: The essentials. http://archive.ahrq.gov/prep/mmcessentials/ (accessed February 27, 2012). AHRQ. 2011b. Mass medical care with scarce resources: Community planning guide. http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/mce/ (accessed February 27, 2011). Alson, R. 2011. Impact of 2009 IOM CSC Letter Report: EMS. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, Washington, DC. AMR (American Medical Response). 2010. EMS scope of practice, protocols, and medical control and direction for AMR/FEMA federal disaster deployments (Rev. 7/27/2010). http://www.amr.net/Files/PDFs/DRT-References-and-Resources/EMS- Scope-of-Practice-for-AMR-FEMA-Federal-Disaste.aspx (accessed February 27, 2012). ANA (American Nurses Association). 2008. Adapting standards of care under extreme conditions guidance for professional during disaster, pandemics, and other extreme emergencies. Silver Spring, MD: ANA. Arkansas Department of Health. 2011. Trauma Section. Little Rock, AR: http://www.healthy.arkansas.gov/programsServices/ injuryPreventionControl/TraumaticSystems/Pages/default.aspx (accessed February 28, 2012). CDC. 2011. Public health emergency response guide for state, local, and tribal public health directors ( Version 2.0). http://emergency. cdc.gov/planning/pdf/cdcresponseguide.pdf (accessed February 27, 2012). FEMA. 2008. National Incident Management System (NIMS) Training Program. http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/index. shtm (accessed February 28, 2012). FEMA Emergency Management Institute. 2011. Understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) E431 student manual: 2011-2011. Washington, DC: FEMA. FICEMS (Federal Interagency Committee for Emergency Medical Services). 2011. 2011 national EMS assessment. Wash- ington, DC: NHTSA, http://www.nasemso.org/documents/National_EMS_Assessment_Final_Draft_12202011.pdf (accessed January 10, 2012). IOM. 2001. Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2005. Quality through collaboration the future for rural health care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2006. Committee of the future of emergency care in the US health system. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2009. 2009 Annual Report. Forum on medical and public health preparedness for catastrophic events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2010. The public health emergency medical countermeasures enterprise: Innovative strategies to enhance products from discovery through approval—workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM and Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services. 1993. Institute of Medicine report: Emergency medical services for children, edited by J. S. Durch and K. N. Lohr. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Johnson, K. 2011. Responding before a call is needed. New York Times, September 18. McCallion, T. 2011. NASEMSO survey provides snapshot of EMS industry. EMS Insider, November 15. PREHOSPITAL CARE 3-43

OCR for page 156
MIEMSS (Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems). 2012. EMS Provider Protocols. Baltimore, MD: MIEMSS, http://www.miemss.org/home/default.aspx?tabid=106 (accessed March 5, 2012). NASEMSO. 2008. Consensus report: EMAC and EMS resources for national disaster response. http://www.nasemso.org/News AndPublications/News/documents/ConsensusReportEMAC-EMSResources.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). NASEMSO. 2010. State emergency medical services system models project: Model statutory and regulatory content for state EMS systems. http://www.nasemso.org/Projects/ModelEMSPlan/documents/StateEMSSystemModel.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). NASEMSO. 2011. P roof of concept for a nationwide highway mass casualty readiness measurement project: Model Inventory of Emergency Care Elements “MIECE.” Falls Church, VA: NASEMSO, http://www.ems.gov/pdf/2011/July2011/7-Model. Inventory.of.Emergency.Care.Elements.%28MIECE%29.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). Pepe, P. 2011. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, Wash- ington, DC. Sasser, S., M. Varghese, A. Kellermann, and J. D. Lormand. 2005. Prehospital trauma care systems. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Trotter, G. 2010. Sufficiency of care in disasters: Ventilation, ventilator triage, and the misconception of guideline-driven treat- ment. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21(4):294-307. U.S. Fire Administration. 2007. Pandemic influenza: Best practices and model protocols. http://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/ pdf/PI_Best_Practices_Model.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). Utah Department of Health. 2009. Utah EMS pandemic influenza guidelines (approved 10/7/2009). http://www.nasemso.org/ Resources/documents/Utah_EMS_Pandemic_Flu_Plan_final.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). Utah Hospitals and Health Systems Association for the Utah Department of Health. 2009. Utah pandemic influenza hospital and ICU triage guidelines. http://pandemicflu.utah.gov/plan/med_triage081109.pdf (accessed February 28, 2012). 3-44 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE