Communications and Technology
for Violence Prevention

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Katherine M. Blakeslee, Deepali M. Patel, and Melissa A. Simon,
Rapporteurs

Forum on Global Violence Prevention

Board on Global Health

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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ommunications and Technology Communications and Technology for Violence Prevention for Violence Prevention WORKSHOP SUMMARY WORKSHOP SUMMARY Katherine M. Blakeslee, Deepali M. Patel, and Melissa A. Simon, Rapporteurs Forum on Global Violence Prevention Board on Global Health

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sci- ences and the Department of Health and Human Services: Administration on Aging, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Office of Women’s Health; Anheuser-Busch InBev; the Avon Foundation for Women; BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company); Catholic Health Initiatives; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the Department of Education: Office of Safe and Healthy Students; the Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice; Eli Lilly and Company; the F. Felix Foundation; the Fetzer Institute; the Foundation to Promote Open Society; the Joyce Foundation; Kaiser Permanente; the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of Research on Women’s Health, John E. Fogarty International Center; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25351-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 978-0-309-25351-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent ad- opted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Coun- cil). 2012. Communications and technology for violence prevention: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR WORKSHOP ON COMMUNICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY FOR VIOLENCE PREVENTION1 JAMES A. MERCY (Chair), Special Advisor for Strategic Directions, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention FRANCES HENRY, Advisor, F. Felix Foundation BRIGID McCAW, Medical Director, NCal Family Violence Prevention Program, Kaiser Permanente JODY RANCK, Principal Investigator, Public Health Institute MARK L. ROSENBERG, President and Chief Executive Officer, The Task Force for Global Health KASISOMAYAJULA “VISH” VISWANATH, Associate Professor, Harvard School of Public Health LISA WITTER, Partner and Chief Change Officer, Fenton 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the work- shop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v

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FORUM ON GLOBAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL (Co-Chair), Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing MARK L. ROSENBERG (Co-Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, The Task Force for Global Health ALBERT J. ALLEN, Senior Medical Fellow, Bioethics and Pediatric Capabilities, Global Medical Affairs and Development Center of Excellence, Eli Lilly and Company CLARE ANDERSON, Deputy Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Department of Health and Human Services FRANCES ASHE-GOINS, Deputy Director, Office on Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services KATRINA BAUM, Senior Research Officer, Office of Research Partnerships, National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice SUSAN BISSELL, Associate Director, Child Protection Section, United Nations Children’s Fund ARTURO CERVANTES TREJO, Director General, National Center for Injury Prevention, Ministry of Health, Mexico XINQI DONG, Associate Director, Rush Institute for Healthy Aging; Associate Professor of Medicine, Behavioral Sciences, and Gerontological Nursing, Rush University Medical Center AMIE GIANINO, Senior Global Director, Beer & Better World, Anheuser-Busch InBev KATHY GREENLEE, Assistant Secretary for Aging, Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services RODRIGO V. GUERRERO, Mayor, Cali, Colombia JOHN R. HAYES, Executive Director, National Network of Depression Centers, Indiana University School of Medicine DAVID HEMENWAY, Director, Injury Control Research Center and the Youth Violence Prevention Center, Harvard University School of Public Health FRANCES HENRY, Advisor, F. Felix Foundation MERCEDES S. HINTON, Program Officer, Initiative on Confronting Violent Crime, Open Society Institute LARKE NAHME HUANG, Senior Advisor, Office of the Administrator, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services vi

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L. ROWELL HUESMANN, Amos N. Tversky Collegiate Professor of Psychology and Communication Studies; Director, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan PAUL KESNER, Director, Safe and Supportive Schools Program, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Department of Education CAROL M. KURZIG, President, Avon Foundation for Women JACQUELINE LLOYD, Health Scientist Administrator, Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse BRIGID McCAW, Medical Director, NCal Family Violence Prevention Program, Kaiser Permanente JAMES A. MERCY, Special Advisor for Strategic Directions, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MARGARET M. MURRAY, Director, Global Alcohol Research Program, National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health MICHAEL PHILLIPS, Director, Suicide Research and Prevention Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine COLLEEN SCANLON, Senior Vice President, Advocacy, Catholic Health Initiatives KRISTIN SCHUBERT, Interim Team Director, Public Health and Program Officer, Vulnerable Populations, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation EVELYN TOMASZEWSKI, Senior Policy Advisor, Human Rights and International Affairs, National Association of Social Workers ELIZABETH WARD, Chairman, Violence Prevention Alliance, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus Staff DEEPALI M. PATEL, Program Officer RACHEL M. TAYLOR, Research Associate MEGAN M. PEREZ, Senior Program Assistant KATHERINE M. BLAKESLEE, Global Program Advisor MELISSA A. SIMON, Institute of Medicine Anniversary Fellow JULIE WILTSHIRE, Financial Officer PATRICK KELLEY, Board Director vii

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Reviewers T his report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confiden- tial to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: AUDIE ATIENZA, Program Director, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health ROBBIN CRABTREE, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Fairfield University FRANCES HENRY, Advisor, F. Felix Foundation PATRICK MEIER, Director of Crisis Mapping, Ushahidi Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report be- fore its release. The review of this report was overseen by Don E. Detmer, Professor Emeritus and Professor of Medical Education at the Department of Public Health Sciences of the University of Virginia School of Medicine. ix

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x REVIEWERS Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.

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Acknowledgments T he Forum on Global Violence Prevention was established to develop multisectoral collaboration among stakeholders. Violence prevention is a cross-disciplinary field that could benefit from increased dialogue among researchers, policy makers, funders, and practitioners. As awareness of the insidious and pervasive nature of violence grows, so too does the imperative to mitigate and prevent it. The Forum seeks to illuminate and explore evidence-based approaches to the prevention of violence. A number of individuals contributed to the development of this workshop and report. These include a number of staff members from the IOM and the National Academies: Patrick Kelley, Angela Christian, Julie Wiltshire, Marton Cavani, Daniel Bethea, Christina Fedak, Meg Ginivan, Yeonwoo Leibowitz, Patsy Powell, and Eileen Milner. The Forum staff, including Deepali Patel, Rachel Taylor, and Megan Perez, also put forth considerable effort to ensure this workshop’s success. The staff at the Em- bassy of Canada provided excellent support for the event. The planning committee contributed several hours of service to develop and execute the agenda, with the guidance of forum membership. Review- ers also provided thoughtful remarks in reading the draft manuscript. Finally, these efforts would not be possible without the work of the Forum membership itself, an esteemed body of individuals dedicated to the concept that violence is preventable. The overall successful functioning of the Forum and its activities de- pends on the generosity of its sponsors. Financial support for the Forum on Global Violence Prevention is provided by the Department of Health and Human Services: Administration on Aging, Administration on Children, xi

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xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Youth, and Families, Office of Women’s Health; Anheuser-Busch InBev; Avon Foundation for Women; BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company); Catholic Health Initiatives; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Department of Education: Office of Safe and Healthy Students; Depart- ment of Justice: National Institute of Justice; Eli Lilly and Company; F. Felix Foundation; Fetzer Institute; Foundation to Promote Open Society; the Joyce Foundation; Kaiser Permanente; National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of Research on Women’s Health, John E. Fogarty International Center; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 PART I: WORKSHOP OVERVIEW 2 Transforming Violence Prevention Through New Communications 9 3 Methodological Considerations of New Communications Platforms 17 4 Addressing Disparities and Vulnerabilities 25 5 Framing Violence Prevention Communication 32 PART II: PAPERS AND COMMENTARY FROM SPEAKERS 6 Foundations of mPreventViolence: Integrating Violence Prevention and Information and Communications Technologies 43 The Role of Information and Communications Technologies in Violence Prevention 44 Cathryn Meurn The State of Global Violence Prevention: Progress and Challenges Mark L. Rosenberg, James A. Mercy, Frances Henry, and 60 Alexander Butchart xiii

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xiv CONTENTS Information and Communications Technologies and the Future of Global Health 66 Jody Ranck Evaluation of mHealth 72 William T. Riley 7 Practical Applications of mPreventViolence 87 Using Mobile Phones to Enhance Parent Engagement in a Home Visiting Intervention to Prevent Child Maltreatment Judith J. Carta, Kathryn Bigelow, Jennifer Burke Lefever, 88 and John Borkowski Bell Bajao! as a Case Study 91 Jael Silliman Dating Violence Prevention: Using Information and Communications Technologies for Global Dating Violence Prevention Andra Teten Tharp, Alan Dowell, Tessa Burton, 105 Laura Chaing, and Constance DeCherney Leveraging Social Media and Technology to Advance the Field of Elder Abuse 111 XinQi Dong, Eric Brown, and Donna Levin Using Big Data to Understand and Prevent Suicide 118 Daniel J. Reidenberg and John Gordon APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 129 B Speaker Biographical Sketches 134