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B Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure The revised technology area breakdown structure (TABS) that appears below reflects all of the changes described in the introductions in Appendixes D through Q.1 The names of level 3 technologies that have been added, moved, or renamed relative to technologies as they appear in the roadmaps appear in bold. To avoid confusion, technologies that have not been changed have the same numerical designation in both the steering committee’s revised TABS and the TABS generated by NASA. As a result, the numbering scheme for the level 3 technologies is discontinuous where technologies have been deleted or moved. TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems 1.1 Solid Rocket Propulsion Systems 1.1.1 Propellants 1.1.2 Case Materials 1.1.3 Nozzle Systems 1.1.4 Hybrid Rocket Propulsion Systems 1.1.5 Fundamental Solid Propulsion Technologies 1.2 Liquid Rocket Propulsion Systems 1.2.1 LH2/LOX Based 1.2.2 RP/LOX Based 1.2.3 CH4/LOX Based 1.2.4 Detonation Wave Engines (Closed Cycle) 1.2.5 Propellants 1.2.6 Fundamental Liquid Propulsion Technologies 1.3 Air Breathing Propulsion Systems 1.3.1 Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) 1.3.2 Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) 1.3.3 Detonation Wave Engines (Open Cycle) 1 The original TABS (for the draft space technology roadmaps) is available at http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oct/strategic_integration/tech - nology_roadmap.html. 91

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92 NASA SPACE TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS AND PRIORITIES 1.3.4 Turbine Based Jet Engines (Flyback Boosters) 1.3.5 Ramjet/Scramjet Engines (Accelerators) 1.3.6 Deeply Cooled Air Cycles 1.3.7 Air Collection and Enrichment System 1.3.8 Fundamental Air Breathing Propulsion Technologies 1.4 Ancillary Propulsion Systems 1.4.1 Auxiliary Control Systems 1.4.2 Main Propulsion Systems (Excluding Engines) 1.4.3 Launch Abort Systems 1.4.4 Thrust Vector Control Systems 1.4.5 Health Management and Sensors 1.4.6 Pyro and Separation Systems 1.4.7 Fundamental Ancillary Propulsion Technologies 1.5 Unconventional / Other Propulsion Systems 1.5.1 Ground Launch Assist 1.5.2 Air Launch / Drop Systems 1.5.3 Space Tether Assist 1.5.4 Beamed Energy / Energy Addition 1.5.5 Nuclear 1.5.6 High Energy Density Materials/Propellants TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies 2.1 Chemical Propulsion 2.1.1 Liquid Storable 2.1.2 Liquid Cryogenic 2.1.3 Gels 2.1.4 Solid 2.1.5 Hybrid 2.1.6 Cold Gas/Warm Gas 2.1.7 Micro-Propulsion 2.2 Non-Chemical Propulsion 2.2.1 Electric Propulsion 2.2.2 Solar Sail Propulsion 2.2.3 Thermal Propulsion 2.2.4 Tether Propulsion 2.3 Advanced (TRL <3) Propulsion Technologies 2.3.1 Beamed Energy Propulsion 2.3.2 Electric Sail Propulsion 2.3.3 Fusion Propulsion 2.3.4 High Energy Density Materials 2.3.5 Antimatter Propulsion 2.3.6 Advanced Fission 2.3.7 Breakthrough Propulsion 2.4 Supporting Technologies 2.4.2 Propellant Storage and Transfer

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93 APPENDIX B TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage 3.1 Power Generation 3.1.1 Energy Harvesting 3.1.2 Chemical (Fuel Cells, Heat Engines) 3.1.3 Solar (Photovoltaic and Thermal) 3.1.4 Radioisotope 3.1.5 Fission 3.1.6 Fusion 3.2 Energy Storage 3.2.1 Batteries 3.2.2 Flywheels 3.2.3 Regenerative Fuel Cells 3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Field Storage 3.2.5 Thermal Storage 3.3 Power Management and Distribution 3.3.1 Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) 3.3.2 Management and Control 3.3.3 Distribution and Transmission 3.3.4 Wireless Power Transmission 3.3.5 [Power] Conversion and Regulation 3.4 Crosscutting Technology 3.4.1 Analytical Tools 3.4.2 Green Energy Impact 3.4.3 Multi-functional Structures 3.4.4 Alternative Fuels TA04 Robotics, Tele-Robotics, and Autonomous Systems 4.1 Sensing and Perception 4.1.1 Vision 4.1.2 Tactile Sensing 4.1.3 Natural Feature Image Recognition 4.1.4 Localization and Mapping 4.1.5 Pose Estimation 4.1.6 Multi-Sensor Data Fusion 4.1.7 Mobile Feature Tracking and Discrimination 4.1.8 Terrain Classification and Characterization 4.2 Mobility 4.2.1 Extreme Terrain Mobility 4.2.2 Below-Surface Mobility 4.2.3 Above-Surface Mobility 4.2.4 Small Body/Microgravity Mobility 4.3 Manipulation 4.3.1 Robot Arms 4.3.2 Dexterous Manipulators 4.3.3 Modeling of Contact Dynamics 4.3.4 Mobile Manipulation 4.3.5 Collaborative Manipulation 4.3.6 Robotic Drilling and Sample Processing

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94 NASA SPACE TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS AND PRIORITIES 4.4 Human-Systems Integration 4.4.1 Multi-Modal Human-Systems Interaction 4.4.2 Supervisory Control 4.4.3 Robot-to-Suit Interfaces 4.4.4 Intent Recognition and Reaction 4.4.5 Distributed Collaboration 4.4.6 Common Human-Systems Interfaces 4.4.7 Safety, Trust, and Interfacing of Robotic/Human Proximity Operations 4.5 Autonomy 4.5.1 Vehicle System Management and FDIR 4.5.2 Dynamic Planning and Sequencing Tools 4.5.3 Autonomous Guidance and Control 4.5.4 Multi-Agent Coordination 4.5.5 Adjustable Autonomy 4.5.6 Terrain Relative Navigation 4.5.7 Path and Motion Planning with Uncertainty 4.6 Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking 4.6.1 Relative Navigation Sensors (long, mid, and near range) 4.6.2 Relative Guidance Algorithms 4.6.3 Docking and Capture Mechanisms/Interfaces 4.7 RTA Systems Engineering 4.7.1 Modularity/Commonality 4.7.2 Verification and Validation of Complex Adaptive Systems 4.7.3 Onboard Computing TA05 Communication and Navigation 5.1 Optical Communication and Navigation 5.1.1 Detector Development 5.1.2 Large Apertures 5.1.3 Lasers 5.1.4 Acquisition and Tracking 5.1.5 Atmospheric Mitigation 5.2 Radio Frequency Communications 5.2.1 Spectrum Efficient Technologies 5.2.2 Power Efficient Technologies 5.2.3 Propagation 5.2.4 Flight and Ground Systems 5.2.5 Earth Launch and Reentry Communication 5.2.6 Antennas 5.3 Internetworking 5.3.1 Disruptive Tolerant Networking 5.3.2 Adaptive Network Topology 5.3.3 Information Assurance 5.3.4 Integrated Network Management 5.4 Position, Navigation, and Timing 5.4.1 Timekeeping and Time Distribution 5.4.3 Onboard Autonomous Navigation and Maneuver

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95 APPENDIX B 5.4.4 Sensors and Vision Processing Systems 5.4.5 Relative and Proximity Navigation 5.4.6 Auto Precision Formation Flying 5.4.7 Auto Approach and Landing 5.5 Integrated Technologies 5.5.1 Radio Systems 5.5.2 Ultra Wideband 5.5.3 Cognitive Networks 5.5.4 Science from the Communication System 5.5.5 Hybrid Optical Communication and Navigation Sensors 5.5.6 RF/Optical Hybrid Technology 5.6 Revolutionary Concepts 5.6.1 X-Ray Navigation 5.6.2 X-Ray Communications 5.6.3 Neutrino-Based Navigation and Tracking 5.6.4 Quantum Key Distribution 5.6.5 Quantum Communications 5.6.6 SQIF Microwave Amplifier 5.6.7 Reconfigurable Large Apertures Using Nanosat Constellations TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems 6.1 Environmental Control, Life Support Systems, and Habitation Systems 6.1.1 Air Revitalization 6.1.2 Water Recovery and Management 6.1.3 Waste Management 6.1.4 Habitation 6.2 Extravehicular Activity Systems 6.2.1 Pressure Garment 6.2.2 Portable Life Support System 6.2.3 Power, Avionics, and Software 6.3 Human Health and Performance 6.3.1 Medical Diagnosis/Prognosis 6.3.2 Long-Duration Health 6.3.3 Behavioral Health and Performance 6.3.4 Human Factors and Performance 6.4 Environmental Monitoring, Safety, and Emergency Response 6.4.1 Sensors: Air, Water, Microbial, etc. 6.4.2 Fire: Detection, Suppression 6.4.3 Protective Clothing/Breathing 6.4.4 Remediation 6.5 Radiation 6.5.1 Risk Assessment Modeling 6.5.2 Radiation Mitigation 6.5.3 Protection Systems 6.5.4 Radiation Prediction 6.5.5 Monitoring Technology

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96 NASA SPACE TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS AND PRIORITIES TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems 7.1 In Situ Resource Utilization 7.1.1 Destination Reconnaissance, Prospecting, and Mapping 7.1.2 Resource Acquisition 7.1.3 ISRU Products/Production 7.1.4 Manufacturing and Infrastructure Emplacement 7.2 Sustainability and Supportability 7.2.1 Autonomous Logistics Management 7.2.2 Maintenance Systems 7.2.3 Repair Systems 7.2.4 Food Production, Processing, and Preservation 7.3 Advanced Human Mobility Systems 7.3.1 EVA Mobility 7.3.2 Surface Mobility 7.3.3 Off-Surface Mobility 7.4 Advanced Habitat Systems 7.4.1 Integrated Habitat Systems 7.4.2 Habitat Evolution 7.4.3 Smart Habitats 7.5 Mission Operations and Safety 7.5.1 Crew Training 7.5.5 Integrated Flight Operations Systems 7.5.6 Integrated Risk Assessment Tools 7.6 Crosscutting Systems 7.6.2 Construction and Assembly 7.6.3 Dust Prevention and Mitigation TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems 8.1 Remote Sensing Instruments/Sensors 8.1.1 Detectors and Focal Planes 8.1.2 Electronics 8.1.3 Optical Systems 8.1.4 Microwave/Radio 8.1.5 Lasers 8.1.6 Cryogenic/Thermal 8.1.7 Space Atomic Interferometry 8.2 Observatories 8.2.2 Structures and Antennas 8.2.3 Distributed Aperture 8.2.4 High Contrast Imaging and Spectroscopy Technologies 8.2.5 Wireless Spacecraft Technologies 8.3 In Situ Instruments/Sensors 8.3.1 Particles, Fields, and Waves: Charged and Neutral Particles, Magnetic and Electric Fields 8.3.3 In Situ (Instruments and Sensors) 8.3.4 Surface Biology and Chemistry Sensors: Sensors to Detect and Analyze Biotic and Prebiotic Substances

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97 APPENDIX B TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems 9.1 Aeroassist and Atmospheric Entry 9.1.1 Rigid Thermal Protection Systems 9.1.2 Flexible Thermal Protection Systems 9.1.3 Rigid Hypersonic Decelerators 9.1.4 Deployable Hypersonic Decelerators 9.2 Descent 9.2.1 Attached Deployable Decelerators 9.2.2 Trailing Deployable Decelerators 9.2.3 Supersonic Retropropulsion 9.3 Landing 9.3.1 Touchdown Systems 9.3.2 Egress and Deployment Systems 9.3.3 Propulsion Systems 9.3.5 Small Body Systems 9.4 Vehicle Systems Technology 9.4.2 Separation Systems 9.4.3 System Integration and Analyses 9.4.4 Atmosphere and Surface Characterization 9.4.5 EDL Modeling and Simulation 9.4.6 Instrumentation and Health Monitoring 9.4.7 GN&C Sensors and Systems TA10 Nanotechnology 10.1 Engineered Materials and Structures 10.1.1 Lightweight Materials and Structures 10.1.2 Damage Tolerant Systems 10.1.3 Coatings 10.1.4 Adhesives 10.1.5 Thermal Protection and Control 10.2 Energy Generation and Storage 10.2.1 Energy Generation 10.2.2 Energy Storage 10.2.3 Energy Distribution 10.3 Propulsion 10.3.1 Nanopropellants 10.3.2 Propulsion Systems 10.3.3 In-Space Propulsion 10.4 Sensors, Electronics, and Devices 10.4.1 Sensors and Actuators 10.4.2 Electronics 10.4.3 Miniature Instrumentation TA11 Modeling, Simulation, and Information Technology and Processing 11.1 Computing 11.1.1 Flight Computing 11.1.2 Ground Computing

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98 NASA SPACE TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS AND PRIORITIES 11.2 Modeling 11.2.1 Software Modeling and Model-Checking 11.2.2 Integrated Hardware and Software Modeling 11.2.3 Human-System Performance Modeling 11.2.4a Science Modeling and Simulation 11.2.4b Aerospace Engineering Modeling and Simulation 11.2.5 Frameworks, Languages, Tools, and Standards 11.3 Simulation 11.3.1 Distributed Simulation 11.3.2 Integrated System Lifecycle Simulation 11.3.3 Simulation-Based Systems Engineering 11.3.4 Simulation-Based Training and Decision Support Systems 11.4 Information Processing 11.4.1 Science, Engineering, and Mission Data Lifecycle 11.4.2 Intelligent Data Understanding 11.4.3 Semantic Technologies 11.4.4 Collaborative Science and Engineering 11.4.5 Advanced Mission Systems TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing 12.1 Materials 12.1.1 Lightweight Structure 12.1.2 Computational Design 12.1.3 Flexible Material Systems 12.1.4 Environment 12.1.5 Special Materials 12.2 Structures 12.2.1 Lightweight Concepts 12.2.2 Design and Certification Methods 12.2.3 Reliability and Sustainment 12.2.4 Test Tools and Methods 12.2.5 Innovative, Multifunctional Concepts 12.3 Mechanical Systems 12.3.1 Deployables, Docking, and Interfaces 12.3.2 Mechanism Life Extension Systems 12.3.3 Electro-mechanical, Mechanical, and Micromechanisms 12.3.4 Design and Analysis Tools and Methods 12.3.5 Reliability/Life Assessment/Health Monitoring 12.3.6 Certification Methods 12.4 Manufacturing 12.4.1 Manufacturing Processes 12.4.2 Intelligent Integrated Manufacturing and Cyber Physical Systems 12.4.3 Electronics and Optics Manufacturing Process 12.4.4 Sustainable Manufacturing 12.5 Crosscutting 12.5.1 Nondestructive Evaluation and Sensors 12.5.2 Model-Based Certification and Sustainment Methods 12.5.3 Loads and Environments

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99 APPENDIX B TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing 13.1 Technologies to Optimize the Operational Life-Cycle 13.1.1 Storage, Distribution, and Conservation of Fluids 13.1.2 Automated Alignment, Coupling, and Assembly Systems 13.1.3 Autonomous Command and Control for Ground and Integrated Vehicle/Ground Systems 13.2 Environmental and Green Technologies 13.2.1 Corrosion Prevention, Detection, and Mitigation 13.2.2 Environmental Remediation and Site Restoration 13.2.3 Preservation of Natural Ecosystems 13.2.4 Alternate Energy Prototypes 13.3 Technologies to Increase Reliability and Mission Availability 13.3.1 Advanced Launch Technologies 13.3.2 Environment-Hardened Materials and Structures 13.3.3 Inspection, Anomaly Detection, and Identification 13.3.4 Fault Isolation and Diagnostics 13.3.5 Prognostics Technologies 13.3.6 Repair, Mitigation, and Recovery Technologies 13.3.7 Communications, Networking, Timing, and Telemetry 13.4 Technologies to Improve Mission Safety/Mission Risk 13.4.1 Range Tracking, Surveillance, and Flight Safety Technologies 13.4.2 Landing and Recovery Systems and Components 13.4.3 Weather Prediction and Mitigation 13.4.4 Robotics/TeleRobotics 13.4.5 Safety Systems TA14 Thermal Management Systems 14.1 Cryogenic Systems 14.1.1 Passive Thermal Control 14.1.2 Active Thermal Control 14.1.3 Systems Integration 14.2 Thermal Control Systems 14.2.1 Heat Acquisition 14.2.2 Heat Transfer 14.2.3 Heat Rejection and Energy Storage 14.3 Thermal Protection Systems 14.3.1 Ascent/Entry TPS 14.3.2 Plume Shielding (Convective and Radiative) 14.3.3 Sensor Systems and Measurement Technologies