he suggested that the TA06 roadmap identified target dates for technology demonstration on the ISS that require station operations until 2030, 10 years longer that what is currently planned. Lastly, when asked about challenges, Packham recognized the largest challenge with remediation was trading venting and cleanup versus compartmentalization and habitable volume.

Ralph Cacace (Honeywell Defense and Space) provided a brief overview of current state-of-the-art smoke detectors used on the ISS. He indicated a growing focus on miniaturization of sensors. Beyond size, other desired sensor characteristics included high accuracy, low power, and what was termed as smart sensors. These smart sensors combine multiple simple measurements with applied physics to produce more complex measurements.

Session 6: Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

Jim Buchli (Oceaneering) started the session with a programmatic perspective of the roadmap. He identified three key considerations for the EVA Roadmap: a clear definition of the mission and requirements, a critical mass of technical skills and experience, and the deployment of technologies that are flexible, producible, and supportable. Additionally, Buchli identified the top EVA technical challenges to be gloves, mobility, modularity of the portable life support system (PLSS), and miniaturization of electronics.

Brian Johnson (NASA-JSC) began with an overview of NASA’s recent EVA technology development efforts by ETDP. He also noted that the HEFT studies reaffirmed the development of space suits as one of the top “destination system” elements to be addressed. He then presented a set of strategic objectives for EVA technology advancement: increased safety and reliability, lower system mass, autonomous operations, expanded anthropometric limits, and lower cost. Lastly, Johnson provided a list of gaps in the current NASA EVA portfolio which included battery specific energy, radiation protection, alternative heat rejection, suit materials/dust, and advanced PLSS packaging and materials.

In the discussion session, the panel posed a question regarding the “academic pipeline” to sustain the development of EVA systems in the future. Buchli responded saying that the number of universities focusing on suit development has definitely been reducing. The panel then questioned the latest advancements in dust mitigation for space suits. Johnson referenced the studies and progress of the former Constellation Program indicating that significant work had been done in this area prior to being cancelled.

Session 7: Radiation

Martha Clowdsley (NASA-LaRC) started the session with a description of radiation protection as an integrated approach consisting of active shielding, forecasting, detection, bio/medical measures, and structure/materials/configuration optimization. She then went on to provide a series of recommendations. For radiation shielding, Clowdsley recommended continued basic materials research and a broad effort to raise the TRLs of existing shielding materials. For exposure analysis tools, she recommended multiple ways to improve both space radiation transport calculations and vehicle/habitat analyses to improve NASA’s radiation modeling capabilities for beyond LEO long-duration exploration.

Edward Semones (NASA-JSC) provided an overview of radiation monitoring technologies. Regarding the difference between LEO and exploration missions, he informed the panel that the radiation dosage rates were significantly higher (by a factor of 2 to 3) for exploration missions as well as being much longer, emphasizing that exploration missions would likely challenge the established human radiation risk limits set by NASA. Additionally, Semones identified the key challenges associated with radiation monitoring technologies to be improved battery technology for personal dosimeters, fail-safe data storage and transmission, in situ active warning and monitoring, and data for forecasting models (particularly for forecasting SPEs).

In the discussion session, the panel asked what international assets were available for space weather monitoring. Semones responded saying that there were none outside of those the United States had already collaborated on: ACE, GOES, SOHO, and STEREO space weather monitoring satellites. The panel also posed the question of which technology showed the most promise, biological countermeasures or radiation shielding. Clowdsley

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