In the draft roadmap, Food Production, Processing and Preservation is just one element of technology 7.2.1, Logistics Systems. Given the importance and complexity of this topic, Food Production, Processing, and Preservation has been established as a new level 3 technology (7.2.4).

In the draft roadmap, technology 7.4.1, Integrated Habitat Systems, includes several elements, including Smart Habitats. The technologies associated with smart habitats are ubiquitous across all human space vehicles, and so Smart Habitats has been established as a new level 3 technology (7.4.3).

Technology 7.5.2, Environmental Protection, has been deleted because all elements of this technology are being treated in other roadmaps (e.g., radiation protection and thermal protection) or they are adequately handled by currently available technologies and design processes (e.g., electromagnetic interference and UV protection).

Technology 7.5.3, Remote Mission Operations, has been deleted because relevant technologies identified in this topic are more appropriately included in the roadmap for TA11 Modeling, Simulation, and Information Technology & Processing. However, the provision of training for and providing real time support for human missions has been added in 7.5.5, Integrated Flight Operations Systems.

Technology 7.5.4, Planetary Safety, has been deleted from this roadmap, but is captured within the Robotics roadmap. The content of this technology category, as described in the draft TA07 roadmap, focused on planetary protection involving robotic missions— that is, ensuring that robotic missions do not contaminate planetary destinations with biological agents from Earth (forward), and ensuring that robotic sample return missions do not contaminate Earth with alien biological agents (backward)). Similarly, it was observed that NASA planetary protection policies are limited to robotic missions. Until those policies are updated to provide guidance on human exploration, in compliance with recent COSPAR planetary protection policies, it would be premature to invest in new technologies relevant to planetary safety in TA07. With respect to Mars, relevant statements from the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy of October 2002, as amended to March 2011, appear below:

Crewmembers exploring Mars, or their support systems, will inevitably be exposed to martian materials. In accordance with these principles, specific implementation guidelines for human missions to Mars include:

•   Human missions will carry microbial populations that will vary in both kind and quantity, and it will not be practicable to specify all aspects of an allowable microbial population or potential contaminants at launch. Once any baseline conditions for launch are established and met, continued monitoring and evaluation of microbes carried by human missions will be required to address both forward and backward contamination concerns.

•   A quarantine capability for both the entire crew and for individual crewmembers shall be provided during and after the mission, in case potential contact with a martian life-form occurs.

•   A comprehensive planetary protection protocol for human missions should be developed that encompasses both forward and backward contamination concerns, and addresses the combined human and robotic aspects of the mission, including subsurface exploration, sample handling, and the return of the samples and crew to Earth.

•   Neither robotic systems nor human activities should contaminate “Special Regions” on Mars, as defined by this COSPAR policy.

•   Any uncharacterized martian site should be evaluated by robotic precursors prior to crew access. Information may be obtained by either precursor robotic missions or a robotic component on a human mission.

•   Any pristine samples or sampling components from any uncharacterized sites or Special Regions on Mars should be treated according to current planetary protection category V, restricted Earth return, with the proper handling and testing protocols.

•   An onboard crewmember should be given primary responsibility for the implementation of planetary protection provisions affecting the crew during the mission.

•   Planetary protection requirements for initial human missions should be based on a conservative approach consistent with a lack of knowledge of martian environments and possible life, as well as the performance of human support systems in those environments. Planetary protection requirements for later missions should not be relaxed without scientific review, justification, and consensus.

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