at all levels, whether on foot, in unpressurized or pressurized roving vehicles, or using innovative solutions such as ballistic “hoppers,” will improve the science return of exploration missions. Current robotic missions to Mars provides us with the experience that there is little overlap between surface regions of greatest scientific interest (craters, hills, etc.) and areas suitable for safe landing (flat and expansive). A comprehensive program of geological exploration needs access to high slopes, loose and unstable surfaces, and the subsurface via drilling or excavation. Technology issues such as wheel-soil interactions, optimum mobility platform design, and high-reliability mechanisms with high tolerance for dust and exposure to extreme environments must be addressed to develop the systems that can achieve these goals. These technology challenges also exist for robotic telepresence systems (e.g., rover mounted cameras and robotic arms) which could be used for extending human exploration from surface habitats while constraining total EVA exposure.


Figure J.1 summarizes the consensus scores of the 19 level 3 technologies in NASA’s draft Human Exploration Destination Systems. The panel evaluated each of these technologies based on the description of its content (at level 4) in the roadmap and in light of changes that the panel would make to the roadmap, as detailed above and in the discussion of individual high-priority technologies below. The scores shown below for each technology reflect the highest priority assigned to one or more level 4 topics within each level 3 technology. For the high-priority level 3 technologies (see Figure J.2), these key level 4 items are discussed in the section below on high-priority technologies.


FIGURE J.1 Quality function deployment (QFD) summary matrix for TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems. The justification for the high-priority designation of all high-priority technologies appears in the section “High-Priority Level 3 Technologies.” H = High Priority; H* = High Priority, QFD score override; M = Medium Priority; L = Low Priority.

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