TABLE M.1 Technology Area Breakdown Structure for TA10, Nanotechnology

NASA Draft Roadmap (Revision 10) Steering Committee-Recommended Changes
TA10 Nanotechnology The steering committee made no changes to the structure of this The steering committee made no changes to the structure of this roadmap, although NASA's draft roadmap renamed or moved

10.1.   Engineered Materials and Structures


10.1.1.   Lightweight Structures

Rename: 10.1.1. Lightweight Materials and Structures

10.1.2.   Damage Tolerant Systems


10.1.3.   Coatings


10.1.4.   Adhesives


10.1.5.   Thermal Protection and Control


10.2.   Energy Generation and Storage


10.2.1.   Energy Storage

Move 10.2.1 to 10.2.2 Energy Storage

10.2.2.   Energy Generation

Move 10.2.2 to 10.2.1 Energy Generation

10.2.3.   Energy Distribution


10.3.   Propulsion


10.3.1.   Propellants

Rename: 10.3.1. Nanopropellants

10.3.2.   Propulsion Components

Rename: 10.3.2 Propulsion Systems

10.3.3.   In-Space Propulsion


10.4.   Sensors, Electronics and Devices


10.4.1.   Sensors and Actuators


10.4.2.   Nanoelectronics

Rename: 10.4.2 Electronics

10.4.3.   Miniature Instruments

Rename: 10.4.3 Miniature Instrumentation

Development of advanced materials using nanotechnology can improve performance in the following areas: electrical energy generation and storage, propulsion, sensors, instrumentation, signal and power transmission, thermal protection, and active structures sensing, healing, and shape control. Nano-enhanced composites have the capability to enhance mission performance by increasing the strength and stiffness of materials and reducing structural weight. Weight reduction with added material functionality (such as increased strength and stiffness) using carbon nanotube technology has already been demonstrated in numerous materials, and nano-enhanced materials are finding their way into commercial products. Nano-enhanced advanced composites could reduce structural weight in launch vehicles, cryotanks, propulsion systems, and spacecraft, thus increasing the payload mass fraction. Nano-enhanced multifunctional materials and structures may exhibit unique failure modes and thus will require new design analysis tools. Multi-scale models that are valid over scales ranging from nano to macro are needed to understand nano-enhanced composite materials failure mechanisms and interfaces in order to design with them. Multi-physics models are needed to address fabrication processes, operation in extreme environments, and designing with active materials. Additional challenges to the broad use and incorporation of nano-engineered materials into useful products are the limited availability of certain raw nanomaterials and their variable quality. New production methodologies are required, not only to manufacture the raw nanomaterials, but also to controllably incorporate them into other materials. The particular end application may require specific dispersion and ordering of the nanoparticles.

2. Increased Power. Increase power for future space missions by developing higher efficiency, lower mass, and smaller energy systems using nanotechnologies.

Energy generation and energy storage will remain a top technical challenge for all future space-related missions. Batteries and power generation account for a significant amount of weight in any launch vehicle. Efficient methods to generate and recover energy, reduce overall power requirements, and reduce weight will benefit future NASA missions. For long-duration space missions, improved energy generation and storage will play a significant role in the mission success. Nanotechnology can improve performance for energy generation, energy storage, and energy distribution. Nano-enhanced electrode materials used in batteries where the surface area is significantly

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