TABLE Q.1 Technology Area Breakdown Structure for TA14, Thermal Management Systems

NASA Draft Roadmap (Revision 10) Steering Committee-Recommended Changes
TA14 Thermal Management Systems The steering committee made no changes to the structure of this roadmap, although NASA's draft roadmap had a different name for two technologies.

14.1.   Cryogenic Systems


14.1.1.  Passive Thermal Control


14.1.2.  Active Thermal Control


14.1.3.  Integration and Modeling

Rename: 14.1.3. Systems Integration

14.2.   Thermal Control Systems


14.2.1.  Heat Acquisition


14.2.2.  Heat Transfer


14.2.3.  Heat Rejection & Energy Storage


14.3.   Thermal Protection Systems


14.3.1.  Entry/Ascent TPS

Rename: 14.3.1 Ascent/Entry TPS

14.3.2.  Plume Shielding (Convective & Radiative)


14.3.3.  Sensor Systems & Measurement Technologies


TPS is mission critical for all future human and robotic missions that require planetary entry or reentry. The current availability of high-TRL rigid ablative TPS is adequate for LEO re-entry, but is inadequate for high-energy re-entries to Earth or planetary missions. Ablative materials are enabling for all NASA, military, and commercial missions that require high-mach number re-entry, such as near-Earth asteroid visits and Mars missions, whether human or robotic (Venkatapathy, 2009a, 2009b). System studies have shown that large entry heat shields provide a potentially enabling means to increase landed mass on a planetary (Mars) surface (Jamshid et al., 2011; McGuire et al., 2011). In many cases, updating existing obsolete TPS materials and processes that were developed in the past may be faster and cheaper than the development of new materials or methods. Some are not now available either because of lost technology, new restrictions on material, or other factors. For example, carbon-phenolic recertification is needed before it can be used for future missions. Other new materials show considerable promise.

2. Zero Boil-Off Storage: Accelerate research on advanced active and passive systems to approach near-zero boil-off in long-term cryogenic storage.

Long-term missions that require cryogenic life-support supplies (e.g., LOX), cryogenic propellants (LH2), or very low temperatures for scientific instrument support will require near-zero boil-off rates. Multiple technologies are proposed in the TA14 roadmap, some of which provide incremental but desirable improvements in cryogenic technology. Emphasis should be on reliable, repairable, supportable active and passive systems that can be integrated into many missions. Many of the technologies are parallel in their impact. Some will emerge as top candidates.

3. Radiators: Develop improved space radiators with reduced mass.

Radiators are used for energy removal from spacecraft and planetary base systems, and are mission-critical for many proposed missions. To reduce radiator mass, area, and pumping power, research is needed on variable emissivity, very low absorptivity-to-emissivity ratio, self-cleaning, and high-temperature coatings, as well as research on lightweight radiators or compact storage systems for extending EVA capability.

4. Multifunctional Materials: Develop high-temperature multifunctional materials that combine structural strength good insulating ability, and possibly other functions.

Multifunctional systems can provide significant mass savings due to combining thermal and structural functions, allowing increased payload weight. Presently, these functions are separately incorporated in spacecraft

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