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TABLE 3.4 Summary Information about Historical Felt Induced Seismicity Caused by or Likely Related toa Energy Technology Development in the United States

Energy Technology Number of Projects Number of Felt Induced Events Maximum Magnitude of Felt Event Number of Events M ≥ 4.0b Net Reservoir Pressure Change Mechanism for Induced Seismicity
Vapor-dominated geothermal 1 300-400 per year since 2005 4.6 1 to 3 per year Attempt to maintain balance Temperature change between injectate and reservoir
Liquid-dominated geothermal 23 10-40 per year 4.1c Possibly one Attempt to maintain balance Pore pressure increase
Enhanced geothermal systems ~8 pilot projects 2-10 per year 2.6 0 Attempt to maintain balance Pore pressure increase and cooling
Secondary oil and gas recovery (waterflooding) ~108,000 (wells) One or more felt events at 18 sites across the country 4.9 3 Attempt to maintain balance Pore pressure increase
Tertiary oil and gas recovery (EOR) ~13,000 None known None known 0 Attempt to maintain balance Pore pressure increase (likely mechanism)
Hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production 35,000 wells total 1 2.8 0 Initial positive; then withdraw Pore pressure increase
Hydrocarbon withdrawal ~6,000 fields 20 sites 6.5 5 Withdrawal Pore pressure decrease
Wastewater disposal wells ~30,000 8 4.8d 7 Addition Pore pressure increase
Carbon capture and storage, small scale 1 None known None known 0 Addition Pore pressure increase
Carbon capture and storage, large scale 0 None None 0 Addition Pore pressure increase


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