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TABLE 5.2 Steps for Hazard and Risk Assessment for a Single Project

Step (see corresponding box in Figure 5.1) A. Probability needed B. Method C. Technology Dependent? D. Region Dependent? E. Depth Dependent?
1 1A. P[generate M ≥ 2 earthquakes] 1B. Statistical 1C. Yes, depends on factors such as volume, pressure, rate, and depth 1D. Yes, tectonically active versus stable region 1E. Yes, large earthquakes usually not induced near surface
2 2A. P[shaking felt at surface] 2B. Analytical/ Statistical 2C. Yes, depends on magnitude distribution and maximum magnitude 2D. Yes, depends on earthquake properties 2E. Yes, deeper induced earthquakes may not be felt
3 3A. P[strength of shaking] 3B. Analytical 3C. Yes, depends on maximum magnitude 3D. Yes, depends on earthquake properties 3E. Yes, shallow earthquakes will generate stronger shaking
4 4A. P[structures and people affected] 4B. Analytical 4C. No 4D. Yes, depends on structural strength and tolerance for shaking 4E. Yes, deeper earthquakes, if felt at the surface, may affect a larger area

NOTE: Gray shaded cells indicate methods that have to be developed to estimate probabilities (“P”) for various aspects of an induced seismic event shown in the green-shaded cells. These four aspects include the probability of generating an earthquake of M > 2.0, the probability of shaking being felt at the surface, the probability of different strengths of shaking from an earthquake, and the probability that the earthquake shaking will affect structures and people.

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