and foreign operators of CCS sites is important to understand induced seismic events and their effects on CCS operations.
1. Induced seismicity may be produced by a number of different energy technologies and may result from either injection or extraction of fluid. As such, responsibility for oversight of activities that can cause induced seismicity is dispersed among a number of federal and state agencies.
2. Recent, potentially induced seismic events in the United States have been addressed in a variety of manners involving local, state, and federal agencies, and research institutions. These agencies and research institutions may not have resources to address these unexpected events, and more events could stress this ad hoc system.
3. Currently the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has primary regulatory responsibility for fluid injection under the Safe Drinking Water Act; however, this act does not explicitly address induced seismicity. EPA appears to be addressing the issue of induced seismicity through a current study in consultation with other federal and state agencies.
4. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the capability and expertise to address monitoring and research associated with induced seismic events. However, the scope of its mission within the seismic hazard assessment program is focused on large-impact, natural earthquakes. Significant new resources would be required if the USGS mission is expanded to include comprehensive monitoring and research on induced seismicity.
Mechanisms are lacking for efficient coordination of governmental agency response to seismic events that may have been induced.
1. In order to move beyond the current ad hoc approach for responding to induced seismicity, relevant agencies including EPA, USGS, land management agencies, and possibly the Department of Energy, as well as state agencies with authority and relevant expertise (e.g., oil and gas commissions, state geological surveys, state