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     environmental agencies, etc.) should consider developing coordination mechanisms to address induced seismic events that correlate to established best practices (see recommendation below).

2. Appropriating authorities and agencies with potential responsibility for induced seismicity should consider resource allocations for responding to induced seismic events in the future.

HAZARDS AND RISK ASSESSMENT

Gap

Currently, methods do not exist to implement assessments of hazards upon which risk assessments depend. The types of information and data required to provide a robust hazard assessment would include

• net pore pressures, in situ stresses, and information on faults;

• background seismicity; and

• gross statistics of induced seismicity and fluid injection for the proposed site activity.

Proposed Actions

1. A detailed methodology should be developed for quantitative, probabilistic hazard assessments of induced seismicity risk. The goals in developing the methodology would be to

• make assessments before operations begin in areas with a known history of felt seismicity and

• update assessments in response to observed induced seismicity.

2. Data related to fluid injection (well location coordinates, injection depths, injection volumes and pressures, time frames) should be collected by state and federal regulatory authorities in a common format and made accessible to the public (through a coordinating body such as the USGS).

3. In areas of high density of structures and population, regulatory agencies should consider requiring that data to facilitate fault identification for hazard and risk analysis be collected and analyzed before energy operations are initiated.



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