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APPENDIX C

Observations of Induced Seismicity

Site/City/State Country Max Magnitude Technology Type (causing induced seismicity) Reference
Akmaar Netherlands 3.5 Oil and gas extraction Giardini (2011)
Akosombo Ghana 5.3 Surface water reservoir Guha (2000)
Apollo Hendrick Field, Texas USA 2 Secondary recovery Doser et al. (1992)
Ashtabula, Ohio USA 3.6 Wastewater injection Armbruster et al. (1987)
Assen Netherlands 2.8 Oil and gas extraction Grasso (1992)
Aswan Egypt 5.6 Surface water reservoir Guha (2000)
Attica, New York USA 5.2 Other Nicholson and Wesson (1992)
Bad Urach Germany 1.8 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012)
Bajina Basta Yugoslavia 4.8 Surface water reservoir Guha (2000)
Barsa-Gelmes-Wishka Oilfield Turkmenistan 6 Secondary recovery Kouznetsov et al. (1994)
Basel Switzerland 3.4 Geothermal Giardini (2011)
Belchalow Poland 4.6 Other Giardini (2011)
Benmore New Zealand 5 Surface water reservoir Guha (2000)
Bergermeer Field Netherlands 3.5 Oil and gas extraction van Eck et al. (2006)
Berlin El Salvador 4.4 Geothermal Bommer et al. (2006)
Bhatsa India 4.8 Surface water reservoir Guha (2000)
Blackpool UK 2.3 Hydraulic fracturing de Pater and Baisch (2011)


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APPENDIX C Observations of Induced Seismicity Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Akmaar Netherlands 3.5 Oil and gas extraction Giardini (2011) Akosombo Ghana 5.3 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Apollo Hendrick Field, USA 2 Secondary recovery Doser et al. (1992) Texas Ashtabula, Ohio USA 3.6 Wastewater injection Armbruster et al. (1987) Assen Netherlands 2.8 Oil and gas extraction Grasso (1992) Aswan Egypt 5.6 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Attica, New York USA 5.2 Other Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Bad Urach Germany 1.8 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Bajina Basta Yugoslavia 4.8 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Barsa-Gelmes-Wishka Turkmenistan 6 Secondary recovery Kouznetsov et al. Oilfield (1994) Basel Switzerland 3.4 Geothermal Giardini (2011) Belchalow Poland 4.6 Other Giardini (2011) Benmore New 5 Surface water Guha (2000) Zealand reservoir Bergermeer Field Netherlands 3.5 Oil and gas extraction van Eck et al. (2006) Berlin El Salvador 4.4 Geothermal Bommer et al. (2006) Bhatsa India 4.8 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Blackpool UK 2.3 Hydraulic fracturing de Pater and Baisch (2011) 195

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APPENDIX C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Cajuru, Brazil Brazil 4.7 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Camarillas, Spain Spain 4.1 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Canelles, Spain Spain 4.7 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Catoosa, Oklahoma1 USA 4.7 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Cesano Italy 2 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Charvak Uzbekistan 4 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Clark Hill USA 4.3 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Cleburne, Texas USA 2.8 Oil and gas extraction Howe et al. (2010) Cleveland, Ohio2 USA 3 Other Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Coalinga, California USA 6.5 Oil and gas extraction McGarr (1991) Cogdell Canyon Reef, USA 4.6 Secondary recovery Davis and Pennington Texas (1989); Nicholson and Wesson (1990) Cold Lake, Alberta Canada 2 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1990) Cooper Basin Australia 3.7 Geothermal Majer et al. (2007) Coso, California USA 2.6 Geothermal Julian et al. (2007); Foulger et al. (2008) Coyote Valley USA 5.2 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Dale, New York USA 1 Other Nicholson and Wesson (1990) Dallas Fort Worth, USA 3.3 Wastewater injection Frohlich et al. (2010) Texas Dan Denmark 4 Oil and gas extraction Grasso (1992) Danjiangkou China 4.7 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Denver, Colorado3 USA 4.8 Wastewater injection Hermann et al. (1981) 196

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Appendix C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Desert Peak, Nevada USA 0.74 Geothermal Chabora et al. (2012) Dhamni India 3.8 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Dollarhide, Texas USA 3.5 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Dora Roberts, Texas USA 3 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1992) East Durant, USA 3.5 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson Oklahoma (1992) East Texas, Texas USA 4.3 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Ekofisk Norway 3.4 Oil and gas extraction Grasso (1992) El Dorado, Arkansas USA 3 Wastewater injection Cox (1991) El Reno, Oklahoma 4 USA 5.2 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Eola field, Oklahoma USA 2.8 Hydraulic fracturing Holland (2011) Eucumbene Australia 5 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Fashing, Texas USA 3.4 Oil and gas extraction Pennington et al. (1986) Fenton Hill, New USA 1 Geothermal Nicholson and Wesson Mexico (1992) Fjallbacka Sweden –0.2 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Fort St. John, British Canada 4.3 Secondary recovery Horner et al. (1994) Columbia Foziling China 4.5 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Gazli Uzbekistan 7.3 Oil and gas extraction Adushkin et al. (2000) Geysers, California USA 4.6 Geothermal Majer et al. (2007) Gobles Field, Ontario Canada 2.8 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1990) Goose Creek, Texas USA unknown5 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Grandval France unknown6 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir 197

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APPENDIX C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Groningen Field Netherlands 3 Oil and gas extraction van Eck et al. (2006) Gross Schonebeck Germany –1.1 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Grozny Caucasus 3.2 Oil and gas extraction Guha (2000) (Russia) Gudermes Caucasus 4.5 Oil and gas extraction Smirnova (1968) (Russia) Guy and Greenbrier, USA 4.7 Wastewater injection Horton (2012) Arkansas Harz Germany 3.5 Other Giardini (2011) Hellisheidi Iceland 2.4 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Hijiori Japan 0.3 Geothermal Kaieda et al. (2010) Hoover USA 5 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Horstberg Germany 0 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Hsinfengchiang China 6.1 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Hunt Field, USA 3.6 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson Mississippi7 (1992) Idukki India 3.5 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Imogene Field, Texas USA 3.9 Oil and gas extraction Pennington et al. (1986) Inglewood Oil Field, USA 3.7 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson California (1992) Ingouri Caucasus 4.4 Surface water Guha (2000) (Russia) reservoir Itizhitezhi Zambia 4.2 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Kariba Zambia 6.2 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Kastraki Greece 4.6 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Kermit Field, Texas USA 4 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1990) 198

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Appendix C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Kerr USA 4.9 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Kettleman North, USA 6.1 Oil and gas extraction McGarr (1991) California Keystone I Field, Texas USA 3.5 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1990) Keystone II Field, USA 3.5 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson Texas (1990) Kinnersani India 5.3 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Koyna India 6.5 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Krafla Iceland 2 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Kremasta Greece 6.3 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir German Continental Germany 1.2 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Deep Drilling Program Kurobe Japan 4.9 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Kuwait Kuwait 4.7 Oil and gas extraction Bou-Rabee (1994) Lacq France 4.2 Oil and gas extraction Grasso and Wittlinger (1990) Lake Charles, USA 3.8 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson Louisiana8 (1990) Lambert Field, Texas USA 3.4 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Landau Germany 2.7 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Larderello-Travale Italy 3 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Latera Italy 2.9 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) LGDD Russia 4.2 Other Giardini (2011) Love County, USA 2.8 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson Oklahoma9 (1990) 199

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APPENDIX C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Love County, USA 1.9 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson Oklahoma (hydraulic fracturing (1990) for conventional oil and gas development) Manicouagan Canada 4.1 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Marathon Greece 5.7 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Matsushiro Japan 2.8 Wastewater injection Ohtake (1974) Mica, Canada Canada 4.1 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Monahans, Texas USA 3 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Monte Amiata Italy 3.5 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Montebello, California USA 5.9 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Montecillo, South USA 2.8 Surface water Guha (2000) Carolina reservoir Monteynard France 4.9 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Mutnovsky, Russia 2 Geothermal Kugaenko et al. (2005) Kamchatka Northern Panhandle, USA 3.4 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson Texas (1990) Nurek Tadjikstan 4.6 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Ogachi Japan 2 Geothermal Kaieda et al. (2010) Petroleum field Oman 2.1 Oil and gas extraction Sze (2005) Orcutt Field, USA 3.5 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson California (1992) Oroville, California USA 5.7 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Paradise Valley, USA 0.8 Wastewater injection Nicholson and Wesson Colorado (1992) 200

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Appendix C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Paradox Valley, USA 4.3 Wastewater injection Ake et al. (2005) Colorado Perry, Ohio USA 2.7 Wastewater injection Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Piastra Italy 4.4 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Pieve de Cadore Italy 4.3 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Porto Colombia Brazil 5.1 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Rangely, Colorado USA 3.1 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1990) Renqiu oil field China 4.5 Secondary recovery Genmo et al. (1995) Richland County, USA 4.9 Oil and gas extraction Nicholson and Wesson Illinois10 (1992) Rocky Mountain Canada 3.4 Oil and gas extraction Wetmiller (1986) House, Alberta Romashkino, Russia 4 Secondary recovery Adushkin et al. (2000) Tartarstan Rongchang, China 5.2 Oil and gas extraction Lei et al. (2008) Chongqing Rosemanowes, UK 2 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Roswinkel Field Netherlands 3.4 Oil and gas extraction van Eck et al. (2006) Rotenburg Germany 4.5 Oil and gas extraction Giardini (2011) Sefia Rud Iran 4.7 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Shandong China 2.4 Secondary recovery Shouzhong et al. (1987) Shenwo China 4.8 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Sleepy Hollow, USA 2.9 Oil and gas extraction Rothe and Lui (1983) Nebraska Snipe Lake Canada 5.1 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson (1992) Soultz France 2.9 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) 201

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APPENDIX C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference South-central Texas USA 4.3 Oil and gas extraction Davis et al. (1995) Southern Alabama USA 4.9 Secondary recovery Gomberg and Wolf (1999) Sriramsagar India 3.2 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Starogroznenskoe Russia 4.7 Oil and gas extraction Kouznetsov et al. Oilfield (1994) Strachan, Alberta Canada 3.4 Oil and gas extraction Grasso (1992) Southwest of Germany 5.8 Other Giardini (2011) Elsenbach Tomahawk Field, New USA Unknown11 Wastewater injection Nicholson and Wesson Mexico (1992) Torre Alfina Italy 3 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Unterhaching Germany 2.4 Geothermal Evans et al. (2012) Upper Silesian Poland 4.45 Other Giardini (2011) Vajont Italy 3 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Valhall and Ekofisk Norway Unknown12 Secondary recovery Zoback and Zinke Oilfields (2002) Varragamba Australia 5.4 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir Vogtland Germany Wastewater injection Baisch et al. (2002) Vouglans France 4.4 Surface water Guha (2000) reservoir War Wink Field, USA 2.9 Oil and gas extraction Doser et al. (1992) Texas Ward-Estes Field, USA 3.5 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson Texas (1992) Ward-South Field, USA 3 Secondary recovery Nicholson and Wesson Texas (1992) West Texas USA 3.1 Oil and gas extraction Keller et al. (1987) Whittier Narrows, USA 5.9 Oil and gas extraction McGarr (1991) California 202

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Appendix C Technology Type Max (causing induced Site/City/State Country Magnitude seismicity) Reference Wilmington Field, USA 3.3 Oil and gas extraction Kovach (1974) California NOTE: “Other” refers to, e.g., coal and solution mining. 1  Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm that the cause of the earthquake was oil and gas extraction; waterflooding and waste disposal were also active in the area at the time. 2  Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm the accuracy of the maximum magnitude of this event, which occurred at the turn of the 20th century (1898-1907). 3  For the Denver earthquakes of 1967-1968, Healy et al. (1968) reported magnitudes up to M 5.3 on an unspecified scale that were derived from local instruments. 4  Nicholson and Wesson (1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the earthquake was caused by oil and gas extraction. 5  Nicholson and Wesson (1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the earthquake was caused by oil extraction or the magnitudes of the events that occurred in the 1920s. Note that this location is not plotted in the figures (maps) in Chapter 1. 6  Guha (2000) describes the earthquake using Modified Mercalli Intensity (V), but does not indicate moment magnitude. 7  Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the event(s) were due to waterflooding for secondary recovery. 8  Nicholson and Wesson (1990) were not able to confirm conclusively that the event(s) were due to oil and gas extraction activities. 9  Nicholson and Wesson (1990) were not able to confirm the maximum magnitude of the events at this site. 10  Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the event(s) were due to oil extraction. 11  Nicholson and Wesson (1992) were not able to confirm the maximum magnitude of the events at this site. 12  Zoback and Zinke (2002) did not provide a maximum magnitude, although the events recorded and analyzed are described as “microseismic” events. REFERENCES Adushkin, V.V., V.N. Rodionov, S. Turuntnev, and A.E. Yodin. 2000. Seismicity in the oil field. Oilfield Review Summer:2-17. Ake, J., K. Mahrer, D. O’Connell, and L. Block. 2005. Deep-injection and closely monitored induced seismicity at Paradox Valley, Colorado. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 95(2):664-683. Armbruster, J.G., L. Seeber, and K. Evans. 1987. The July 1987 Ashtabula earthquake (mb) 3.6 sequence in northeastern Ohio and a deep fluid injection well. Abstract. Seismological Research Letters 58(4):91. Baisch, S., M. Bohnhoff, L. Ceranna, Y. Tu, and H.-P. Harjes. 2002. Probing the crust to 9-km depth: Fluid-injection experiments and induced seismicity at the KTB superdeep drilling hole, Germany. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 92(6):2369-2380. 203

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APPENDIX C Bommer, J.J., S. Oates, J.M. Cepeda, C. Lindholm, J. Bird, R. Torres, G. Marroquin, and J. Rivas. 2006. Control of hazard due to seismicity induced by a hot fractured rock geothermal project. Engineering Geology 83:287-306. Bou-Rabee, F. 1994. Earthquake recurrence in Kuwait induced by oil and gas extraction. Journal of Petroleum Geology 17(4):473-480. Chabora, E., E. Zemach, P. Spielman, P. Drakos, S. Hickman, S. Lutz, K. Boyle, A. Falconer, A. Robertson-Tait, N.C. Davatzes, P. Rose, E. Majer, and S. Jarpe. 2012. Hydraulic Stimulation of Well 27-15, Desert Peak Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA. Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, CA, January 30-February 1. Cox, R.T. 1991. Possible triggering of earthquakes by underground waste disposal in the El Dorado, Arkansas area. Seismo- logical Research Letters 62(2):113-122. Davis, S.D., and W.D. Pennington. 1989. Induced seismic deformation in the Cogdell oil field of West Texas. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 79(5):1477-1494. Davis, S.D., P. Nyffenegger, and C. Frohlich. 1995. The 9 April 1993 earthquake in south-central Texas: Was it induced by fluid withdrawal? Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 85(6):1888-1895. de Pater, C.J, and S. Baisch. 2011. Geomechanical Study of Bowland Shale Seismicity, Synthesis Report. Cuadrilla Resources Ltd. Available at http://www.cuadrillaresources.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Geomechanical-Study-of-Bowland- Shale-Seismicity_02-11-11.pdf (accessed July 12, 2012). Doser, D.I., M.R. Baker, M. Luo, P. Marroquin, L. Ballesteros, J. Kingwell, H.L. Diaz, and G. Kaip. 1992. The not so simple relationship between seismicity and oil production in the Permian Basin, West Texas. Pure and Applied ­ eophysics G 139(3/4):481-506. Evans, K.F., A. Zappone, T. Kraft, N. Deichmann, and F. Moia. 2012. A survey of the induced seismic responses to fluid injection in geothermal and CO2 reservoirs in Europe. Geothermics 41:30-54. Foulger, G.R., B.R. Julian, and F.C. Monastero. 2008. Seismic monitoring of EGS tests at the Coso geothermal area, Cali- fornia, using accurate MEQ locations and full moment tensors. Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, CA, January 28-30.  Frohlich, C., C. Hayward, B. Stump, and E. Potter. 2010. The Dallas-Fort Worth earthquake sequence: October 2008-May 2009. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 101(1):327-340. Genmo, Z., C. Huaran, M. Shuqin, and Z. Deyuan. 1995. Research on earthquakes induced by water injection in China. Pure and Applied Geophysics 145(1):59-68. Giardini, D. 2011. Induced Seismicity in Deep Heat Mining: Lessons from Switzerland and Europe. Presentation to the ­ ational Research Council Committee on Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Production Technologies, N W ­ ashington, DC, April 26. Gomberg, J., and L. Wolf. 1999. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 Mw 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery. Geology 27(4):367-370. Grasso, J.-R. 1992. Mechanics of seismic instabilities induced by the recovery of hydrocarbons. Pure and Applied Geophysics 139(3/4):506-534. Grasso, J.-R., and G. Wittlinger. 1990. Ten years of seismic monitoring over a gas field. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 80:2450-2473. Guha, S.K. 2000. Induced Earthquakes. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Healy, J.H., W.W. Rubey, D.T. Griggs, and C.B. Raleigh. 1968. The Denver earthquakes. Science 161:1301-1310. Herrmann, R.B., S.-K. Park, and C.-Y. Wang. 1981. The Denver earthquakes of 1967-1968. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 71(3):731-745. Holland, A. 2011. Examination of Possibly Induced Seismicity from Hydraulic Fracturing in the Eola Field, Garvin County, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Open-File Report OF1-2011. Available at www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/ openfile/OF1_2011.pdf (accessed July 12, 2012). Horner, R.B., J.E. Barclay, and J.M. MacRae. 1994. Earthquakes and hydrocarbon production in the Fort St. John area of northeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Exploration Geophysics 30(1):39-50. Horton, S. 2012. Disposal of hydrofracking-waste fluid by injection into subsurface aquifers triggers earthquake swarm in central Arkansas with potential for damaging earthquake. Seismological Research Letters 83(2):250-260. 204

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Appendix C Howe, A.M., C.T. Hayward, B.W. Stump, and C. Frohlich. 2010. Analysis of recent earthquakes in Cleburne, Texas (­Abstract). Seismological Research Letters 81:379. Julian, B.R., G.R. Fouilger, and F. Monastero. 2007. Microearthquake moment tensors from the Coso geothermal field. Proceedings, 32nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, CA, January 22-24. Kaieda, H., S. Shunji Sasaki, and D. Wyborn. 2010. Comparison of characteristics of micro-earthquakes observed during hydraulic stimulation operations in Ogachi, Hijiori and Cooper Basin HDR projects. Proceedings, World Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia, April 25-29. Keller, G.R., A.M. Robers, and C.D. Orr. 1987. Seismic activity in the Permian Basin area of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico, 1975-1979. Seismological Research Letters 58(2):63-70. Kouznetsov, O., V. Sidorov, S. Katz, and G. Chilingarian. 1994. Interrelationships among seismic and short-term tectonic activity, oil and gas production, and gas migration to the surface. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 13:57-63. Kovach, R.L. 1974. Source mechanisms for Wilmington oil field, California, subsidence earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismo- logical Society of America 64(3):699-711. Kugaenko, Y., V. Saltykov, and V. Chebrov. 2005. Seismic situation and necessity of local seismic monitoring in exploited­ M ­ utnovsky steam-hydrothermal field (southern Kamchatka, Russia). Proceedings, World Geothermal Congress, A ­ ntalya, Turkey, April 24-29. Lei, Z., G. Yu, S. Ma, X. Wen, and Q. Wang. 2008. Earthquakes induced by water injection at ~3 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, Chongqing, China. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:B10310. Majer, E.L., R. Baria, M. Stark, S. Oates, J. Bommer, B. Smith, and H. Asanuma. 2007. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal systems. Geothermics 36(3):185-222. McGarr, A. 1991. On a possible connection between three major earthquakes in California and oil production. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 81(3):948-970. Nicholson, C., and R.L. Wesson. 1990. Earthquake Hazard Associated with Deep Well Injection—A Report to the US Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1951, 74 pp. Nicholson, C., and R.L. Wesson. 1992. Triggered earthquakes and deep well activities. Pure and Applied Geophysics 139(3/4):562-578. Ohtake, M. 1974. Seismic activity induced by water injection at Matsushiro, Japan. Journal of Physics of the Earth 22(1):163-176. Pennington, W.D., S.D. Davis, S.M. Carlson, J. DuPree, and T.E. Ewing. 1986. The evolution of seismic barriers and a ­ sperities caused by the depressuring of fault planes in oil and gas fields of south Texas. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 76(4):939-948. Rothe, G.H., and C.-Y. Lui. 1983. Possibility of induced seismicity in the vicinity of the Sleepy Hollow oil field, southwestern Nebraska. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 73(5):1357-1367. Shouzhong, D., Z. Huanpeng, and G. Aixiang. 1987. Rare seismic clusters induced by water injection in the Jiao well 07 in Shengli oil field. Earthquake Research in China 1:313. Smirnova, M.N. 1968. Effect of earthquakes on the oil yield of the Gudermes field (northeastern Caucasus). Izvestiya, Earth Physics 12:760-763. Sze, E.K.-M. 2005. Induced seismicity analysis for reservoir characterization at a petroleum field in Oman. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. van Eck, T., F. Goutbeek, H. Haak, and B. Dost. 2006. Seismic hazard due to small-magnitude, shallow-source, induce earthquakes in the Netherlands. Engineering Geology 87(1-2):105-121. Wetmiller, R.J. 1986. Earthquakes near Rocky Mountain House, Alberta and their relationship to gas production facilities. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 23. 172 pp. Zoback, M.D., and J.C. Zinke. 2002. Production-induced normal faulting in the Valhall and Ekofisk oil fields. Pure and Applied Geophysics 159:403-420. 205

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