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Site/City/State Country Max Magnitude Technology Type (causing induced seismicity) Reference
Wilmington Field, California USA 3.3 Oil and gas extraction Kovach (1974)

NOTE: “Other” refers to, e.g., coal and solution mining.

1 Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm that the cause of the earthquake was oil and gas extraction; waterflooding and waste disposal were also active in the area at the time.

2 Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm the accuracy of the maximum magnitude of this event, which occurred at the turn of the 20th century (1898-1907).

3 For the Denver earthquakes of 1967-1968, Healy et al. (1968) reported magnitudes up to M 5.3 on an unspecified scale that were derived from local instruments.

4 Nicholson and Wesson (1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the earthquake was caused by oil and gas extraction.

5 Nicholson and Wesson (1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the earthquake was caused by oil extraction or the magnitudes of the events that occurred in the 1920s. Note that this location is not plotted in the figures (maps) in Chapter 1.

6 Guha (2000) describes the earthquake using Modified Mercalli Intensity (V), but does not indicate moment magnitude.

7 Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the event(s) were due to waterflooding for secondary recovery.

8 Nicholson and Wesson (1990) were not able to confirm conclusively that the event(s) were due to oil and gas extraction activities.

9 Nicholson and Wesson (1990) were not able to confirm the maximum magnitude of the events at this site.

10 Nicholson and Wesson (1990, 1992) were not able to confirm conclusively that the event(s) were due to oil extraction.

11 Nicholson and Wesson (1992) were not able to confirm the maximum magnitude of the events at this site.

12 Zoback and Zinke (2002) did not provide a maximum magnitude, although the events recorded and analyzed are described as “microseismic” events.

REFERENCES

Adushkin, V.V., V.N. Rodionov, S. Turuntnev, and A.E. Yodin. 2000. Seismicity in the oil field. Oilfield Review Summer:2-17.

Ake, J., K. Mahrer, D. O’Connell, and L. Block. 2005. Deep-injection and closely monitored induced seismicity at Paradox Valley, Colorado. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 95(2):664-683.

Armbruster, J.G., L. Seeber, and K. Evans. 1987. The July 1987 Ashtabula earthquake (mb) 3.6 sequence in northeastern Ohio and a deep fluid injection well. Abstract. Seismological Research Letters 58(4):91.

Baisch, S., M. Bohnhoff, L. Ceranna, Y. Tu, and H.-P. Harjes. 2002. Probing the crust to 9-km depth: Fluid-injection experiments and induced seismicity at the KTB superdeep drilling hole, Germany. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 92(6):2369-2380.



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