TABLE L.1 Hydraulic Fracturing Volumes
|Development Area||Average Volume Water (gal)||Volume Water Use Per Well (gal)||Volume Water Use Per Well (m3)|
|Marcellus||5,600,000||No data||No data|
|Niobrara||3,000,000||No data||No data|
|Average volume per well per day||4,640,000||—||—|
NOTE: “Daily” hydraulic fracture volume plotted assumes the hydraulic fracturing procedure would take 2 days to complete; the 1-day volume plotted is half the total well volume estimated by King (2012). “Yearly” hydraulic fracture volume assumes 15 wells per year in the development area. Postfracturing flowback volume is assumed to be 20 percent of the total volume injected.
SOURCE: King (2012); Nicot and Scanlon (2012).
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APPENDIX L Estimated Injected Fluid Volumes Tables L.1–L.5 contain the data used to create Figure 3.16. TABLE L.1 Hydraulic Fracturing Volumes Average Volume Volume Water Use Volume Water Use Development Area Water (gal) Per Well (gal) Per Well (m3) Barnett 4,600,000 2,800,224 10,600 Eagle Ford 5,000,000 4,253,170 16,100 Haynesville 5,000,000 5,679,699 21,500 Marcellus 5,600,000 No data No data Niobrara 3,000,000 No data No data Average volume per well per day 4,640,000 — — NOTE: “Daily” hydraulic fracture volume plotted assumes the hydraulic fracturing procedure would take 2 days to complete; the 1-day volume plotted is half the total well volume estimated by King (2012). “Yearly” hydraulic fracture volume assumes 15 wells per year in the development area. Postfracturing flowback volume is assumed to be 20 percent of the total volume injected. SOURCE: King (2012); Nicot and Scanlon (2012). 243
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APPENDIX L TABLE L.2 Carbon Capture and Sequestration Volumes 43 lb/ft3 Density of liquid CO2 at 80°C (AIRCO value) 2000 lb 1 ton liquid CO2 47 ft 3 1 ton liquid CO2 at 80°C 47,000,000 ft 3 1 million tons liquid CO2 at 80°C per year 1,330,892 m 3 1 million tons liquid CO2 at 80°C per year 351,355,488 gal 1 million tons liquid CO2 at 80°C per year Result: 1.33 × 106 m3/year liquid CO2 at 80°C per year 3.65 × 103 m3/day liquid CO2 at 80°C per year 3.51 × 108 gal/year liquid CO2 at 80°C per year 9.63 × 105 gal/day liquid CO2 at 80°C per year NOTE: Table assumes 1 million tons of liquid CO2 injection per year. The density/unit weight of liquid CO2 varies significantly with temperature; the density of supercritical (liquid) CO2 ranges from 0.60 to 0.75 g/cm3 (Sminchak and Gupta, 2003). If one assumes approximately 43 lb/ft3 (AIGA, 2009) for the unit weight of CO2 (approximately 0.64 g/cm3) at a subsurface temperature of 80°C (AIGA, 2009) then 1 ton of CO2 equates to 47 ft3, and 1 million tons/year equates to 47,000,000 ft3/year or 1,330,892 m3/year or 3646 m3/day. SOURCE: Sminchak and Gupta (2003); AIGA (2009). TABLE L.3 Water Disposal Well Volume Calculations 9,000 bbl/day 42 gal/barrel 378,000 gal/day 137,970,000 gal/year NOTE: Reported average saltwater disposal (SWD) injection of 8,000–11,000 bbl/day. SWD injection volumes estimated from Texas Railroad Commission for SWD wells north of DFW airport. Frohlich et al. (2010) report a survey of SWD wells in Tarrant and Johnson counties that reported rates ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 barrels per month; 9,000 bbl/day was used for graph. Nicot and Scanlon (2012) state Texas is the top shale producer in the United States. SOURCE: Frohlich et al. (2010). 244
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Appendix L TABLE L.4 Geysers Geothermal Field Calculations 1,000,000,000 billion pounds steam/year 8 pounds steam/gallon 328,899 gal/day 120,048,019 gal/year SOURCE: Smith et al. (2000). TABLE L.5 Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Main Stimulation Calculations 11,500 m3 water injected over 6 days 3,037,979 gallons water injected over 6 days 1,917 avg. m3/day 506,330 avg. gal/day SOURCE: Asanuma et al. (2008). REFERENCES AIGA (Asia Industrial Gases Association). 2009. Carbon Dioxide, 7th ed. Singapore: AIGA 068/10. Available at www.asiaiga. org/docs/AIGA%20068_10%20Carbon%20Dioxide_reformated%20Jan%2012.pdf (accessed May 2012). Asanuma, H., Y. Kumano, H. Niitsuma, U. Schanz, and M. Häring. 2008. Interpretation of reservoir structure from super- resolution mapping of microseismic multiplets from stimulation at Basel, Switzerland in 2006. GRC Transactions 32:65-70. Frohlich, C., C. Hayward, B. Stump, and E. Potter. 2010. The Dallas-Fort Worth earthquake sequence: October 2008-May 2009. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 101(1):327-340. King, G.E. 2012. Hydraulic Fracturing 101: What every representative, environmentalist, regulator, reporter, investor, uni- versity researcher, neighbor, and engineer should know about estimating frac risk and improving frac performance in unconventional gas and oil wells. Paper SPE 152596 presented to the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, TX, February 6-8. Nicot, J.-P., and B.R. Scanlon. 2012. Water use for shale-gas production in Texas, U.S. Environmental Science and Technology 46:3580-3586. Sminchak, J., and N. Gupta. 2003. Aspects of induced seismic activity and deep-well sequestration of carbon dioxide. Envi ronmental Geosciences 10(2):81-89. Smith, J.L.B., J.J. Beall, and M.A. Stark. 2000. Induced seismicity in the SE Geysers Field, California, USA. Presented at the World Geothermal Congress, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May 28-June 10. 245
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