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a hydraulic fracturing operation) would not be considered the cause of a M 7 earthquake that was initiated at 10 km depth, even if the hydraulic fracturing and earthquake were close in space and time.

The earthquake history of a region also plays a role in inferring whether a particular earthquake was induced. If a certain earthquake appears to be related to human activity, but similar earthquakes have occurred in the past in that region, the connection with human activity is more tenuous than if the correlation between earthquake and human activity occurred in a previously aseismic region. In the latter case, an important indicator might be the rate of occurrence of multiple earthquakes, compared to the historical rate (Ellsworth et al., 2012). The important point is that there often is no definitive proof that a particular earthquake was induced; conclusions are usually based on inference.


Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy production captures the natural heat of the Earth to generate steam that can drive a turbine to produce electricity. Geothermal systems fall into one of three different categories: (1) vapor-dominated systems, (2) liquid-dominated systems, and (3) enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Vapor-dominated systems are relatively rare. A major example is The Geysers geothermal field in Northern California. Liquid-dominated systems are used for geothermal energy in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. In both of these types of hydrothermal resource systems, either steam or hot water is extracted from naturally occurring fractures within the rock in the subsurface and cold fluid is injected into the ground to replenish the fluid supply. EGS are a potentially new source of geothermal power in which the subsurface rocks are naturally hot and fairly impermeable, and contain relatively little fluid. Wells are used to pump cold fluid into the hot rock to gather heat, which is then extracted by pumping the fluid to the surface. In some cases a potential EGS reservoir may lack sufficient connectivity via fractures to allow fluid movement through rock. In this case the reservoir may be fractured using high-pressure fluid injection in order to increase permeability. Permeability is a measure of the ease with which a fluid flows through a rock formation. (See Chapter 2 for detailed discussion of permeability and its relevance to fracture development and fluid flow.) In each of these geothermal systems, the injection or extraction of fluid has the potential to induce seismic activity. Further description of these technologies and examples of induced seismic activity are provided in Chapter 3.

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