Appendix B

Biographical Sketches of
Panel Members and Staff

Robert E. Litan (Cochair) is the vice president for research and policy at the Kauffman Foundation where he oversees the foundation’s program for data collection and research on entrepreneurship and economic growth. He is also a senior fellow in economic studies at the Brookings Institution. He has published widely in academic journals, as well as in magazines and newspapers. Since the onset of the financial crisis, he has published a number of essays on financial reforms for the Brookings website. Previously, he served in several capacities in the federal government, including associate director of the Office of Management and Budget; deputy assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice; and staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisers. He received a B.S. in economics (summa cum laude) from the Wharton School of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania, a J.D. from Yale Law School, and an M. Phil. and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University.

Andrew W. Wyckoff (Cochair) is director of the Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Previously, he held other positions in OECD, including head of the Information, Computer and Communications Policy Division, which supports the organization’s work on information as well as consumer policy issues. His experience prior to the OECD includes serving as a program manager of the Information, Telecommunications, and Commerce program of the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress, as an economist at the U.S. National Science Foundation, and as a programmer at the Brookings Institution. He has an undergraduate degree from the University of Vermont and a degree in public policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Carter Bloch is a research director at the Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policy at the University of Aarhus. His research concerns innovation measurement, innovation policy, and the relationship between research and development, innovation, and economic performance. He has been involved in a number of projects concerning innovation indicators and policy, and he is currently heading a project on the measurement of innovation in public sector organizations. He has an undergraduate degree in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Aarhus in Denmark.

Nicholas R. Chrisman is a professor of geomatics sciences at the Université Laval (Canada), where he serves as scientific director of the GEOIDE Network, a network of centres of excellence in the field of geomatics. Previously, he held positions in the Department of Geography at the University of Washington and in the Department of Landscape Architecture at



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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff Robert E. Litan (Cochair) is the vice president for research and policy at the Kauffman Foundation where he oversees the foundation’s program for data collection and research on entrepreneurship and economic growth. He is also a senior fellow in economic studies at the Brookings Institution. He has published widely in academic journals, as well as in magazines and newspapers. Since the onset of the financial crisis, he has published a number of essays on financial reforms for the Brookings website. Previously, he served in several capacities in the federal government, including associate director of the Office of Management and Budget; deputy assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice; and staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisers. He received a B.S. in economics (summa cum laude) from the Wharton School of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania, a J.D. from Yale Law School, and an M. Phil. and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. Andrew W. Wyckoff (Cochair) is director of the Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Previously, he held other positions in OECD, including head of the Information, Computer and Communications Policy Division, which supports the organization’s work on information as well as consumer policy issues. His experience prior to the OECD includes serving as a program manager of the Information, Telecommunications, and Commerce program of the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress, as an economist at the U.S. National Science Foundation, and as a programmer at the Brookings Institution. He has an undergraduate degree from the University of Vermont and a degree in public policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Carter Bloch is a research director at the Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policy at the University of Aarhus. His research concerns innovation measurement, innovation policy, and the relationship between research and development, innovation, and economic performance. He has been involved in a number of projects concerning innovation indicators and policy, and he is currently heading a project on the measurement of innovation in public sector organizations. He has an undergraduate degree in economics from the University of Wisconsin- Madison and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Aarhus in Denmark. Nicholas R. Chrisman is a professor of geomatics sciences at the Université Laval (Canada), where he serves as scientific director of the GEOIDE Network, a network of centres of excellence in the field of geomatics. Previously, he held positions in the Department of Geography at the University of Washington and in the Department of Landscape Architecture at 58

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the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research has concentrated on time in geographic information systems (GIS), data quality testing, and the social and institutional aspects of GIS. Throughout his career, he has tried to connect the technical details of GIS to larger issues of philosophy and culture, and he recently, joined in an interdisciplinary group that studies the interactions of science, technology, and society. He has a B.A. (magna cum laude) in geography from the University of Massachusetts–Amherst and a Ph.D. in geography from the University of Bristol (England). Carl J. Dahlman is the Henry R. Luce professor of international relations and information technology at Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Previously, he worked at the World Bank, where he served as senior adviser to the World Bank Institute, and he managed an initiative providing training on the strategic use of knowledge for economic and social development to business leaders and policy makers in developing countries. He has also conducted extensive analytical work in major developing countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, and he is currently working on studies on Mexico, China, Finland, Japan, and Korea. He has a B.A. in international relations from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. Geoff M. Davis is a senior researcher in the User Experience Group at Google. Previously, he held positions in the Mathematics Department at Dartmouth College; in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Rice University; with the Signal Processing Group at Microsoft Research; as a developer at a start-up company; at Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society; and a Werthheim Fellow at the Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School. His mathematical research centers around representations of information, with a particular focus on wavelets and related transforms. He is a recipient of the Leon K. Kirchmayer Prize Paper Award of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has had a long-standing interest in science education and policy issues, and he is a past member of the Science and Engineering Workforce Project of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He has a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the Courant Institute at New York University. Katharine G. Frase is vice president of Industry Solutions and Emerging Business at IBM Research. Prior to this position, she was vice president of Technical and Business Strategy at IBM’s Software Group, responsible for technical strategy, business strategy, business development, standards, competitive analysis, and the application of advanced technologies. Her previous positions at IBM included vice president of technology and management of process development, design/modeling methodology and production for chip carrier assembly and final test for IBM silicon products. Her research interests include mechanical properties/structural interactions in composites, high temperature superconductors, solid electrolytes (fast ionic conductors), ceramic powder synthetic methods, and ceramic packaging. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. She has an A.B. in chemistry from Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from the University of Pennsylvania. Barbara M. Fraumeni is chair of the Ph.D. program, and professor of public policy at the Muskie School of Public Service of the University of Southern Maine, where she previously served as associate dean of research. She was chief economist of the Bureau of Economic 59

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Analysis at the U.S. Department of Commerce and was a research fellow of the Program on Technology and Economic Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Her research interests include measurement issues and national income accounting; human and nonhuman capital, productivity, and economic growth; market and nonmarket accounts; investment in education and research and development; and measurement of highway capital stock and the real output of government by function. She holds a B.A. from Wellesley College and a Ph.D. from Boston College. Richard B. Freeman holds the Herbert Ascherman chair in economics at Harvard University and is currently serving as faculty director of the Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School. He also directs the National Bureau of Economic Research/Sloan Science Engineering Workforce Projects, and he is senior research fellow in labor markets at the London School of Economics’ Centre for Economic Performance. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Science, and he is currently serving as a member of the Initiative for Science and Technology of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a recipient of the Mincer Lifetime Achievement Prize of the Society of Labor Economics and of the IZA Prize in Labor Economics from the Institute for the Study of Labor. He holds a B.A. from Dartmouth College and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Frederick D. Gault is a professorial fellow with the United Nations University–Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology (UNU- MERIT). He is also a professor extraordinaire at the Tshwane University of Technology in South Africa and a member of the university’s Institute for Economic Research on Innovation. He worked with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as a member of the Management Team coordinating the OECD Innovation Strategy. Previously, he held a visiting fellowship at the Canadian International Development Research Centre and was a senior lecturer in theoretical physics at the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. At Statistics Canada, he directed the division responsible for the development of statistics on all aspects of research, development, invention, innovation and the diffusion of technologies, as well as on related human resources. He was chair of the OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators and of the Working Party on Indicators for the Information Society. He is a fellow of the Institute of Physics and a member of the British Computer Society. He holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics and a B.Sc. (Econ.) from the University of London. David Goldston is director of government affairs at the National Resources Defense Council. He was a visiting lecturer at the Harvard University Center for the Environment and in the Science, Technology and Environment Program at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Previously, he was the chief of staff of the U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on Science, which has jurisdiction over much of the federal research and development budget, and legislative director to Representative Sherwood Boehlert of New York. He wrote the monthly column “Party of One” on Congress and science policy for the journal Nature. He graduated from Cornell University and completed the course work for a Ph.D. in U.S. history at the University of Pennsylvania. Kaye Husbands Fealing (Study Director) is a member of the staff of the Committee on National Statistics. She is on leave from the Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs of the 60

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University of Minnesota, where she is a professor in the Center for Science, Technology and Public Policy. Previously, she was the William Brough professor of economics at Williams College. At the National Science Foundation, she initiated and developed the agency’s Science of Science and Innovation Policy program, cochaired the Science of Science Policy Interagency Task Group, and served as an economics program director. Her research has included a study of the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Mexican and Canadian automotive industries and on strategic alliances between aircraft contractors and their subcontractors. She has a B.A. in mathematics and economics from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Michael Mandel is chief economic strategist at the nonpartisan Progressive Policy Institute in Washington and a senior fellow at the Mack Center for Technological Innovation at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. His main areas of study include how innovation drives growth, the impact of regulation on innovation, and improvements in economic statistics to better track the global economy. His current research focuses on how offshoring and import price bias can cause potentially significant overestimates of productivity and output growth. He formerly served as chief economist at BusinessWeek, where he directed the magazine’s coverage of the domestic and global economies, and he has received multiple awards for his stories on economic growth and innovation. He has a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. John E. Rolph is a professor of statistics emeritus at the Marshall School of Business of the University of Southern California, where he also holds appointments in the mathematics department and the law school. Previously, he was a statistician at the RAND Corporation and served as head of the statistical research and consulting group. His major areas of research include statistics and public policy and empirical Bayes estimation. He is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, a fellow of the American Statistical Association, a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and a lifetime national associate of the National Academies. He is a past editor of CHANCE magazine and has served in many other editorial capacities. He has an A.B. and a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of California, Berkeley. Leland Wilkinson is the executive vice president of SYSTAT Software Inc., a company he founded. He is also an adjunct professor of statistics at Northwestern University and an adjunct professor of computer science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and he has served as vice- chair of the board of the National Institute of Statistical Sciences. He developed the original SYSTAT computer program and manuals, and he holds patents in visualization and distributed analytic computing. He has an A.B. from Harvard University, an S.T.B. degree from Harvard Divinity School, and a Ph.D. from Yale. 61