Engineering Science and Technology Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During her 22 years at ORNL, she researched the impacts of policies and programs aimed at advancing the market entry of sustainable energy technologies and led several energy technology and policy scenario studies. Prior to serving at ORNL, she was a tenured associate professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Illinois, Urbana—Champaign, where she conducted research on the diffusion of energy innovations. She has authored over 200 publications and has been an expert witness in hearings before committees of both the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives. She was a member of Working Group III of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and coauthor of the 2007 Assessment Report on Mitigation of Climate Change. The IPCC was honored with the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize in part for this work. A recent study that she co-led, Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future, was the subject of two Senate hearings, has been cited in proposed federal legislation, and has had a significant role in international climate change debates. She serves on the boards of directors of several energy, engineering, and environmental organizations, including the Alliance to Save Energy and the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, and she serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Technology Transfer. She is also a member of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and the National Commission on Energy Policy. She served on the NRC Committee on America’s Climate Choices and the NRC Panel on Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change. She has a Ph.D. in geography from Ohio State University.

MICHAEL L. COHEN is a senior program officer for the Committee on National Statistics. He is currently serving as study director for the Panel on Industrial Methods for the Effective Test and Development of Defense Systems, the Panel on the Theory and Application of Reliability Growth Modeling to Defense Systems, and the Workshop on Future Directions for the National Science Foundation National Patterns of Research and Development Program. Previously, he has directed studies involving census and survey methodology and the testing and evaluation of defense systems in development, as well as a study on handling missing data in clinical trials. He was a mathematical statistician at the U.S. Energy Information Administration, an assistant professor at the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, and a visiting lecturer in statistics at Princeton University. His general area of interest is the use of statistics in public policy,

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