to which prejudice can account for wages and employment differences by race and gender. He has a Ph.D. from Cornell University.

Philip J. Cook is the ITT/Sanford professor of public policy and professor of economics and sociology at Duke University. Previously, he served as director and chair of Duke’s Sanford Institute of Public Policy, and he has been a visiting scholar at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He has served as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Justice (Criminal Division) and the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Enforcement Division). He has published on a wide range of topics, including punishment, deterrence of crime, the costs of crime, homicide and economic conditions, and the epidemic in youth violence of the late 1980s and early 1990s. His other research interests include evaluation methods; public health policy; and the regulation of alcohol, guns, and gambling. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California at Berkeley.

Steven N. Durlauf is the Kenneth J. Arrow and Laurents R. Christensen professor of economics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Previously, he served as director of the economics program at the Santa Fe Institute and as general editor of the revised edition of the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. His primary research interests involve the integration of the social influences into the theoretical and statistical analysis of economic phenomena, and he has also studied issues related to racial profiling, deterrence and imprisonment, and deterrence and death penalty. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University.

Amelia M. Haviland holds the Anna Loomis McCandless chair at the Heinz College at Carnegie Mellon University, and she is a senior statistician at RAND. Her research focuses on causal analysis with observational data and analysis of longitudinal and complex survey data with applications in health, criminology, and economics. Her methodological work has included new methods to combine semi-parametric mixture modeling for longitudinal data with propensity score approaches to causal modeling and methods for creating minimum mean squared error composite estimates from a combination of probability and nonprobability samples. She is a recipient of the Thomas Lord Scholarship Award from the RAND Institute for Civil Justice. She holds a Ph.D. in statistics and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.

Gerard E. Lynch is a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and he is the Paul J. Kellner professor of law at the Columbia University School of Law. Previously, he served on the U.S. District Court for

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