the Southern District of New York. Prior to his appointment to the bench, he served as vice dean of the Columbia University School of Law. His main areas of expertise include sentencing and criminal law and procedure. He is a recipient of the Edward Weinfeld Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Administration of Justice from the New York County Lawyers’ Association and of the Wien Prize for Social Responsibility from Columbia University. He holds degrees from Columbia College and the Columbia University School of Law.

Charles F. Manski is a Board of Trustees professor in economics at Northwestern University. Previously, he served on the faculties of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Carnegie Mellon University. His research spans econometrics, judgment and decision, and the analysis of social policy. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and an elected fellow of the Econometric Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He holds a B.S. and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

John V. Pepper is associate professor of economics at the University of Virginia. His research focuses on program evaluation methods, applied econometrics, and public economics. He has published widely on a range of topics, including evaluation of criminal justice data and programs, food assistance programs, health and disability programs, and welfare programs. He is on the board of the Michigan Retirement Research Center and of the Southern Economics Association. He is a coeditor of the Southern Economic Journal, and he served as a guest editor for a special issue of the American Journal of Law and Economics, which focused on empirical research on the death penalty. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

James Q. Wilson was the Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University and a distinguished scholar in the Department of Political Science and senior fellow at the Clough Center at Boston College. Previously, he was the Shattuck professor of government at Harvard University and the James Collins professor of management and public policy at the University of California at Los Angeles. His national positions related to issues of public policy included chair of the White House Task Force on Crime, chair of the National Advisory Commission on Drug Abuse Prevention, member of the Attorney General’s Task Force on Violent Crime, member of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, and member of the board of directors of the Police Foundation. He held a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.

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